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Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

Faculty of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

Shaye J.D. Cohen, Nathan Littauer Professor of Hebrew Literature and Philosophy (Chair)
Dalia Abo Haggar, Preceptor in Arabic
Irit Aharony, Senior Preceptor in Modern Hebrew
M. Shahab Ahmed, Associate Professor of Islamic Studies
Sami Mohmoud Alkyam, Preceptor in Arabic
Ali S. Asani, Professor of Indo-Muslim and Islamic Religion and Cultures (on leave fall term)
Gojko Barjamovic, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Nour Barmada abida, Preceptor in Arabic
Khaled El-Rouayheb, Professor of Islamic Intellectual History (Director of Undergraduate Studies)
John L. Ellison, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
R. Michael Feener, Prince Alwaleed bin Talal Visiting Associate Professor of Islamic Studies
William Albert Graham, Murray A. Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor
William E. Granara, Professor of the Practice of Arabic on the Gordon Gray Endowment
Rachel L. Greenblatt, Associate Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Jay M. Harris, Harry Austryn Wolfson Professor of Jewish Studies and Dean of Undergraduate Education
Wolfhart P. Heinrichs, James Richard Jewett Professor of Arabic
Feryal Hijazi, Preceptor in Arabic
Susan M. Kahn, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Ousmane Kane, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations (FAS), Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Professor of Contemporary Islamic Religion and Society (Divinity School)
Eitan Lev Kensky, Preceptor in Yiddish, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Chad Kia, Lecturer on Persian Literature and Culture
Nevenka Korica, Senior Preceptor in Arabic
Luke Anthony Leafgren, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Peter Machinist, Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages (on leave 2013-14)
Hisham Mahmoud, Preceptor in Modern Arabic
Peter Der Manuelian, Philip J. King Professor of Egyptology (on leave spring term)
Daniel Reza Rafinejad, Preceptor in Persian
James R. Russell, Mashtots Professor of Armenian Studies
Richard J. Saley, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
P. Oktor Skjaervo, Aga Khan Professor of Iranian (on leave spring term)
Piotr Steinkeller, Professor of Assyriology (Director of Graduate Studies)
Himmet Taskomur, Preceptor in Ottoman and Modern Turkish
Ruth R. Wisse, Martin Peretz Professor of Yiddish Literature and Professor of Comparative Literature
Malika Zeghal, Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Professor in Contemporary Islamic Thought and Life (on leave 2013-14)

Other Faculty Offering Instruction in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

Michael D. Coogan, Visiting Lecturer on Old Testament/Hebrew Bible (Divinity School)
Baber Johansen, Professor of Islamic Religious Studies (Divinity School)
Cemal Kafadar, Vehbi Koc Professor of Turkish Studies
Jon D. Levenson, Albert A. List Professor of Jewish Studies (Divinity School)
Roy Mottahedeh, Gurney Professor of History (on leave spring term)
Bernd Ulrich Schipper, Visiting Fellow (Divinity School)
D. Andrew Teeter, Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament (Divinity School)
Jacquelyn Williamson, Visiting Lecturer on Women’s Studies and Near Eastern Studies (Divinity School)

Affiliates of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations introduces students to the ancient and modern peoples, languages, cultures, and societies of the Near and Middle East. Loosely defined as stretching from Morocco in the west to Iran and Afghanistan in the east, the region is home of the world’s great religions and civilizations. Historically, the influence of its languages, literatures and cultures has extended to Central, East and Southeast Asia, sub-saharan Africa, Europe and North America. Thus, the study of the Near and Middle East is an important area of academic inquiry on account of its political, economic and cultural significance on the international stage.

Given the diversity of the course offerings, the catalog chapter is organized in the following categories, but many courses touch on more than one area. For example, one will find courses about the Bible under ‘The Middle East in Antiquity’, ‘Jewish Studies’, and also ‘Hebrew Literature and History’. The chapter categories are as follows:
     Near Eastern Civilizations - tutorials for undergraduates, and directed study for graduate students
     The Middle East in Antiquity - Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies; Armenian Studies
     Histories and Cultures of Muslim Societies - Islamic Civilizations
     Jewish Studies
     Modern Middle Eastern Studies - The Modern Middle East
     Languages and Literatures - Akkadian; Arabic; Aramaic; Armenian; Egyptian; Hebrew Language (Classical and Modern); Hebrew Literature and History; Iranian; Persian; Semitic Philology; Sumerian; Turkish; Yiddish

Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations

Near Eastern Civilizations

Primarily for Undergraduates

*Near Eastern Civilizations 91r. Supervised Reading and Research
Catalog Number: 1132
Khaled El-Rouayheb and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Tutorial supervision of research in subjects not treated in regular courses.

*Near Eastern Civilizations 97r. Group Tutorial—Sophomore Year
Catalog Number: 0167
James R. Russell and members of the Department
Half course (spring term). M., 3:30–5:30.
An introduction to the cultures and literatures of the Near East in ancient, classical, and modern times, emphasizing major themes and problems that cut across individual cultures and historical periods.

*Near Eastern Civilizations 98r. Tutorial — Junior Year
Catalog Number: 2612
Khaled El-Rouayheb and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Designed for juniors concentrating in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

*Near Eastern Civilizations 99r. Tutorial — Senior Year
Catalog Number: 6623
Khaled El-Rouayheb and members of the Department
Full course. Hours to be arranged.
Note: Designed for seniors concentrating in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

Cross-listed courses

Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding 54 (formerly Culture and Belief 12). For the Love of God and His Prophet: Religion, Literature, and the Arts in Muslim Cultures

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Near Eastern Civilizations 300. Direction of Master’s Thesis
Catalog Number: 2448
Ali S. Asani 7739 (on leave fall term), William E. Granara 1054, Susan M. Kahn 4833, Chad Kia 2852, Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, Peter Der Manuelian 4279 (on leave spring term), Roy Mottahedeh 1454 (on leave spring term), James R. Russell 3411, and Malika Zeghal 6744 (on leave 2013-14)

*Near Eastern Civilizations 390. Direction of Doctoral Dissertations
Catalog Number: 3041
Ali S. Asani 7739 (on leave fall term), Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, William Albert Graham 4156, William E. Granara 1054, Jay M. Harris 2266, Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, Peter Machinist 2812 (on leave 2013-14), Peter Der Manuelian 4279 (on leave spring term), James R. Russell 3411, P. Oktor Skjaervo 2869 (on leave spring term), Piotr Steinkeller 7337, Ruth R. Wisse 3177, and Malika Zeghal 6744 (on leave 2013-14)

The Middle East in Antiquity

Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies

See also below under Akkadian and Sumerian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Semitic Philology.

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-listed Courses

[Culture and Belief 13. The Contested Bible: The Sacred-Secular Dance]
Culture and Belief 23 (formerly Literature and Arts C-70). From the Hebrew Bible to Judaism, From the Old Testament to Christianity
[Culture and Belief 48 (formerly Literature and Arts A-70). God, Justice, and the Book of Job]
[Societies of the World 38. Pyramid Schemes: The Archaeological History of Ancient Egypt]

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Ancient Near East 100. History of the Ancient Near East]
Catalog Number: 0702
Gojko Barjamovic
Half course (fall term). M., W., at 2. EXAM GROUP: 7
This course provides an overview of the history of the ancient Near East, with a focus on ancient Mesopotamia. It begins with the advent of writing in the late fourth millennium BCE and ends with the fall of Babylon to Cyrus the Great, in 539 BCE. The course combines archaeological, art historical, and textual data to explore the extraordinarily rich history of this region.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1115.

[Ancient Near East 102. Introduction to Mesopotamian Religion]
Catalog Number: 0486
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 13
A survey of the history and major concerns of ancient Mesopotamian religion from prehistoric times down to the reign of Alexander the Great. Among the topics treated are the key figures of the Sumero-Babylonian pantheon, the major mythological compositions (read in translation), personal religion, cosmogonies and theogonies, magic and divination, Mesopotamian temples, and cult and ritual. The course makes rich use of ancient iconography.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3661.

Ancient Near East 103. Ancient Lives - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 65695
Gojko Barjamovic
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 11, plus one hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 13
This course will present and question a number of fundamental elements of human society, using themes from ancient history to explore ways of thinking about civilization and culture. Our focus is the earliest human ’civilization’ - Mesopotamia c. 3400-100 BC - which corresponds to parts of modern-day Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Particular to the study of this early period of human history is the fact that writing was first developed here in the form of cuneiform inscriptions on clay. Because clay survives well in the ground, ancient Mesopotamia is one of the most densely documented historical periods prior to early modern times. Also, unlike, say, Greek and Roman manuscripts, which mostly exist as copies that have been passed down through tradition, virtually all of sources for the ancient Near East survive directly as documentary records that have remained in the ground since their time of use. This includes peoples’ private letters, grocery lists, medical bills, philosophical treaties, school essays, proverbs, and virtually any other imaginable textual genre. The wealth, scope and incredible chronological extent of the Mesopotamian sources allow us to raise a number of fundamental questions about what it means to be human. What is nature and what is culture? What are the roots of economy and the concept of private ownership? Why do we need belief systems (religion, philosophy, etc.) and how do these develop? Is the concept of love universal? How about childhood? Race? Gender? - What is universal and what is context-specific? How is our current situation a product of the past? How did ancient societies perceive themselves and the world that surrounded them? What are the key foundations for our current condition, and what can we learn from ancient societies?

[Ancient Near East 111. Law in the World of the Bible]
Catalog Number: 6397
Peter Machinist
Half course (spring term). Tu., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16
An examination of what law was and how it operated in ancient Israel through its primary expression in the Hebrew Bible. Attention to the wider contexts of law in the ancient Near East, especially Mesopotamia, in which biblical law originated, and to the legacy of biblical law in the subsequent traditions of early Judaism.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1129.

Ancient Near East 120a. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament 1: Pentateuch and Former Prophets
Catalog Number: 6544
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 10–11:30. EXAM GROUP: 12, 13
A critical introduction to the literature and theology of the Hebrew Bible, considered in light of the historical contexts of its formation and the interpretive contexts of its reception within Judaism and Christianity. The course, the first part of a divisible, year-long sequence, will focus on the major biblical narrative traditions, the Pentateuch and Former Prophets.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1102.

Ancient Near East 120b. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament 2: Latter Prophets and Writings
Catalog Number: 22968
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 10-11:30, and a section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 12, 13
A critical introduction to the literature and theology of the Hebrew Bible, considered in light of the historical contexts of its formation and the interpretive contexts of its reception within Judaism and Christianity. The course, the second part of a divisible, year-long sequence, will focus on the Latter Prophets and the Writings.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1103.

*Ancient Near East 121. ‘Wisdom and Torah’ in the Book of Proverbs: An Interpretation of Proverbs 1-9 and 28-31 - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 57085 Enrollment: Limited to 15.
Bernd Ulrich Schipper (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). M., 12–2. EXAM GROUP: 5, 6
In the past, scholars have declared Israelite wisdom to be something “alien” within the Hebrew Bible. The book of Proverbs seemed to have little connection to the main theological traditions of Biblical Israel. This course presents a new approach to the book of Proverbs, with special attention to the interplay between ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Torah.’ On the basis of a detailed exegesis of (the Hebrew text of) Proverbs 1-9 and 28-31 the relationship of Proverbs to the ‘Torah’-tradition, especially to the book of Deuteronomy, will be investigated, with consideration as well for its consequences for the composition of the book of Proverbs.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1454.
Prerequisite: Introductory Hebrew.

[Ancient Near East 126. History of the Religion of Ancient Israel]
Catalog Number: 1672
Peter Machinist
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
The study of ancient Israelite religion and culture in comparative historical context. Topics examined include conceptions of divinity, prophecy, law, kingship, and cult. Through such topics the aim is to see how Israel related to other cultures of the ancient Near East and, thus, of what value the study of the other cultures has in understanding the character of Israelite religion itself.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1110.

Ancient Near East 128. Ancient Egypt and the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 28008
Bernd Schipper (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 12–2. EXAM GROUP: 14, 15
The quest for the cultural influence of Pharaonic Egypt on the Hebrew Bible is as old as scholarly interest in the Bible itself. Starting with ancient historians such as Herodotus or Diodorus, and extending from the Renaissance era up to the present, scholars have been searching for traces of Egypt in the literature of the Hebrew Bible. This lecture course begins with a brief overview of cultural contacts, investigating the connections between various pieces of literature such as Psalm 104 and the Egyptian Hymn to Aten, Proverbs 22-24 and the Instruction of Amenemope, as well as less well-known literature like Psalm 20 and an Aramaic-Demotic Papyri from Ptolemaic Egypt, or the ’Apocalyptic’ Prophecy of the Potter and the Oracle on Egypt in Isaiah 19.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1122.

Ancient Near East 131. Readings in the Septuagint
Catalog Number: 3661
Richard J. Saley
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., at 12. EXAM GROUP: 14
This course aims to increase facility with Septuagint Greek by reading representative prose portions of the Septuagint and studying the peculiarities of the grammar inductively. The basics of Hellenistic Greek will be reviewed as necessary.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4215.
Prerequisite: One year of Greek.

[Ancient Near East 132. Ancient Jewish Wisdom Literature]
Catalog Number: 9522
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
A close critical reading and interpretation of works thought to derive from the Wisdom tradition of ancient Israel, through the Second Temple period. The workings of the world and the ways of God as they appear in works such as Proverbs, Job, Qohelet, Ben Sira, some Psalms, the Wisdom of Solomon, Fourth Maccabees, and Pseudo-Phocylides as well as narratives such as the Joseph story, Esther, and Daniel. Egyptian and Mesopotamian antecedents and parallels briefly considered. Emphasis on matters of worldview and literary form.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1416.
Prerequisite: Ancient Near East 120 or an equivalent introduction to the historical-critical study of the Hebrew Bible.

[Ancient Near East 134. Genesis: Narrative Artistry and Theological Meanings]
Catalog Number: 3291
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
A close critical reading in English of the book of Genesis with an eye both to the storytellers’ techniques and to the moral and theological dimensions of the text. Emphasis will be given to literary and religious rather than historical and editorial issues.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1417.
Prerequisite: Ancient Near East 120 or an equivalent introduction to the historical-critical study of the Hebrew Bible.

[Ancient Near East 155r. Ancient Mesopotamia: Archaeology and Texts]
Catalog Number: 11874
Piotr Steinkeller and Jason A. Ur
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Ancient Mesopotamia was the world’s first literate urban civilization. This class will examine the origins and evolution of cities, temples, and government from two complementary perspectives: the archaeological record and cuneiform inscriptions in translation. Activities will include visits to museum collections (Peabody, Semitic Museum, Boston MFA), hands-on experience with creating cuneiform tablets, and virtual tours of southern Iraq using satellite imagery.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

[Ancient Near East 165. The Chosen People]
Catalog Number: 16825
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10. EXAM GROUP: 10, 11
A consideration of the concept of the biblical motif of divine choice of individuals and groups, with close reading of representative texts in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. Knowledge of Hebrew not required.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1120.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Hebrew Bible/Old Testament or the equivalent.

Cross-listed Courses

Primarily for Graduates

[Ancient Near East 210. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 5492
Richard J. Saley
Half course (fall term). Tu., 3–6. EXAM GROUP: 17, 18
This course focuses on the art of recovering the text of the Hebrew Bible using Hebrew and Greek manuscripts as well as other early textual witnesses.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1819.
Prerequisite: At least two years of Hebrew and one year of Greek; some knowledge of Aramaic, Latin, and Syriac is helpful but not required.

[Ancient Near East 225. The Greek Bible in History and Theology: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 2475
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 18
An exploration of social, historical, interpretive, and theological issues associated with the so-called Septuagint and its complex relationship to early Judaism and Christianity. Emphases include origins, eschatology, messianism, halakhah, New Testament backgrounds, and biblical theology.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1301.
Prerequisite: Basic reading knowledge of Greek and Hebrew.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Ancient Near East 310. Reading and Research in Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology
Catalog Number: 4264
Members of the Department

*Ancient Near East 320. Reading and Research in Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization
Catalog Number: 5678
Peter Machinist 2812 (on leave 2013-14) and Piotr Steinkeller 7337

*Ancient Near East 330. Reading and Research in Biblical Studies
Catalog Number: 1524
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, Peter Machinist 2812 (on leave 2013-14), and D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School) 6111

Armenian Studies

See also below under Armenian.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Armenian Studies 100. Armenian Epic]
Catalog Number: 2576
James R. Russell
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Reading in translation of The Wild Men of Sasun, with analysis of native historical and mythological sources, and thematic comparison to epic poetry of the neighboring Iranians (Ossetic Narts, Persian Shah-nameh, Kurdish epic songs), Turks (Dede Korkut), and Greeks (Digenes Akrites).
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Armenian Studies 102. Introduction to Armenian Civilization
Catalog Number: 50965
James R. Russell
Half course (fall term). Th., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
A survey of the history and culture of the Armenian people from earliest times to the Genocide and Soviet era.
Note: This course, when taken for a letter grade, meets the Core area requirement for Foreign Cultures.

Armenian Studies 105. Survey of 19th and 20th Century Armenian Poetry: From Romantics to Revolutionaries
Catalog Number: 3496
James R. Russell
Half course (fall term). W., 3:30–5:30. EXAM GROUP: 8, 9
A survey of the great innovators and visionaries: Bedros Tourian, Misak Medzarents, Yeghia Demirjibashian, Daniel Varouzhan, Siamanto, Vahan Teryan, Yeghishe Charents, and their English, Russian, and French colleagues and translators. The course spans the fateful epoch from the mid-19th century to the aftermath of the Russian Revolution.
Note: Knowledge of Armenian preferred but not required.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Armenian Studies 300. Reading and Research in Armenian Studies
Catalog Number: 1740
James R. Russell 3411

Early Iranian Civilizations

For Undergraduates and Graduates

See also below under Arabic, Aramaic, and Iranian.

Primarily for Graduates

Iranian 282a. Ancient Iranian Religions: Zoroastrianism - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 22326
James R. Russell
Half course (spring term). W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 8, 9
An introduction to the teachings of the Prophet Zarathushtra and the beliefs and practices of his followers, from the Achaemenid Persians, Parthian Arsacids, and Persian Sasanians to the Parsis of India, based on translated primary sources and secondary researches.

Histories and Cultures of Muslim Societies

See also below under Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. Refer also to the Urdu section of the Department of South Asian Studies.

Islamic Civilizations

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-listed Courses

Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding 54 (formerly Culture and Belief 12). For the Love of God and His Prophet: Religion, Literature, and the Arts in Muslim Cultures
[Culture and Belief 19 (formerly Foreign Cultures 70). Understanding Islam and Contemporary Muslim Societies]
[Culture and Belief 41 (formerly Historical Study A-67). Gender, Islam, and Nation in the Middle East and North Africa]
Religion 13. Scriptures and Classics - (New Course)
*Religion 20. Ethnographies of Religion, Texts and Contexts
Religion 1806. The Vocabulary of Islam

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Islamic Civilizations 100. Supervised Reading and Research in Islamic Studies
Catalog Number: 94225
Khaled El-Rouayheb (fall term) and Ali S. Asani (spring term) and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
A course of supervised research in subjects related to the study of Islam and Muslim societies not treated in regular courses.

[Islamic Civilizations 103. Orientalism: Old and New Perspectives]
Catalog Number: 13124
Malika Zeghal
Half course (fall term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
This course will look at the texts that inspired Said’s perspective in his 1978 book "Orientalism", in particular Foucault’s "Archeology of Knowledge" and "Discipline and Punish", and at the debates that have ensued within many disciplines such as history, sociology and cultural studies.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with Divinity School as HDS 3358.

Islamic Civilizations 130. Islamization and Vernacularization: Religious and Cultural Dynamics in the History of Muslim Southeast Asia - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 77408
R. Michael Feener
Half course (spring term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
From its origins in Arabia, Islam has expanded across the globe and taken deep root in diverse societies across Asia and Africa over the past 1,400 years. This course explores the cultural and political dynamics of Islamization and vernacularization as themes of global Islamic history with particular reference to developments in Muslim Southeast Asia. Major topics to be covered include the spread of Islam, the development of vernacular Muslim cultures, the rise of regional sultanates, the impact of European colonialism, and modern reformist critiques of vernacular forms of devotional practice and cultural expression.
Note: No previous background in Islamic Studies or Arabic language is required for this course. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3020.

[Islamic Civilizations 145a. Introduction to Islamic Philosophy and Theology: The Formative and Classical Periods (8th to 15th centuries)]
Catalog Number: 0292
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). Th., 3-5, and a weekly section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 17, 18
An introductory survey of the development of Islamic theology and philosophy. We will examine and discuss some of the central problems that were much debated through the centuries, such as: the relationship between philosophy and faith; whether humans possess free will; how to understand apparently anthropomorphic expressions in Scripture; whether acts are good because God commands them or God commands them because they are good; and proofs for the existence of God.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered alternate years with Islamic Civilizations 145b. Though the two courses can be taken in either order, 145a covers the 8th-15th centuries and 145b covers the 16th-20th centuries. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3602.

Islamic Civilizations 145b. Introduction to Islamic Philosophy and Theology: The Early-Modern and Modern Periods (16th to 20th centuries) - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 12106
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). Th., 3–5, and a weekly section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 17, 18
The course is a continuation of Islamic Civilizations 145a but may be taken independently. It explores the thought of some of the major Islamic philosophers and theologians from the 16th century to the 20th: Mulla Sadra (d.1635), Shah Waliullah (d.1762), Muhammad Abduh (d.1905), and 20th century thinkers such as Muhammad Iqbal, Said Nursi, Abu l-Ala Maududi, Ali Shariati, Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, Mohammed Arkoun and Fatema Mernissi.
Note: Expected to be omitted in 2014–15. Offered alternate years with Islamic Civilizations 145a. Though the two courses can be taken in either order, 145a covers the 8th-15th centuries and 145b covers the 16th-20th centuries. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3602b.

Islamic Civilizations 170. Islam, Modernity and Politics
Catalog Number: 55905 Enrollment: Limited to 18.
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (fall term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
The aim of this seminar is to study the evolution of Islamic thought and political practices in Muslim societies from the 19th to the early 21st centuries. Attention will be devoted to the patterns of interaction between the Muslim World and the West because it is our assumption that these patterns contribute to influence ideological formations and modes of religious/political mobilizations in the Muslim World. By the end of the 18th century, much of the Muslim World was in "decline" whereas European imperial powers, mainly France and Great Britain, were on the rise. The course will explore the response of Muslim societies and intellectuals to the rise of European prominence. The major 19th century reformist movements that appeared in the Muslim World will be discussed, ranging from movements advocating mild reform to those rejecting all influence of "Western civilization" and advocating a return to the Tradition of Muhammad. In the 20th century, virtually all the Muslim World came under European colonial domination. During colonial rule and after, the Muslim world experienced major transformations which affected the nature and administration of law, politics and society. It is in this context, that the new Islamic revival that some have called "Islamism" was articulated as an alternative to Westernization. The course will address the rise of contemporary "Islamism," as an alternative to Western domination and modernization/Westernization. The major theorists of political Islam as well as the different trajectories of "Islamism" in diverse Muslim societies will be covered. The impact of political Islam in the West will also be addressed. The final part of the course will assess the trajectories of political Islam and address the ongoing debates on post-Islamism, secularism and modernity.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3368.

Islamic Civilizations 175. Islam in African History
Catalog Number: 15502 Enrollment: Limited to 30.
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 1. EXAM GROUP: 15
As of 2009 according to the Pew Charitable Trust Survey of the Global Muslim population, 241 million Muslims lived south of the Sahara. This is about 15 percent of the Muslim global population. The course is designed to provide an understanding of the spread of Islam and the formation and transformation of Muslim societies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The course is organized in two parts. The first part of the course will focus on the history of Islamization of Africa, and topics will include the ways in which Islam came to Africa, the relationships of Islam to trade, the growth of literary in Arabic and Ajami, the rise of clerical classes and their contribution to State formation in the pre-colonial period. The second part of the course will address Muslim responses to European colonial domination, and the varieties of Islamic expressions in the post-independence period (rise of Islamist, Shiite and Salafi jihadi movements) and Muslim globalization. In addition to the lectures, the course will include film showing and two discussion sections: one in English and one in Arabic.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3365.

Islamic Civilizations 176. Islam in Modern West Africa - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 59889 Enrollment: Limited to 30.
Ousmane Kane (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., at 1, plus one hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 15
At the beginning of European colonial rule in the early 20th century, less than a half of the West African population was Muslim. By independence from European colonial rule in the early 1960s, close to 90 percent of many West African countries have been Islamized. More people converted to Islam during the six decades of European colonial rule than in the preceding thousand years of slow Islamization. The aim of this lecture course is to analyze contemporary West African Muslim societies with particular reference to the 20th and 21st centuries. This course will look at how colonialism created a favorable ground for the spread of Islam. It will also address the main institutions and movements of modern Islam in West Africa as well as the postcolonial transformations in education, gender, the arts, interfaith relations etc. In addition to the discussion section in English, this lecture course will also offer a section in Arabic in which participants will be initiated to the intellectual production of Muslim intellectuals in Africa.
Note: Jointly offered with the Divinity School as 3366.

*Islamic Civilizations 177. Readings in the Islamic Archive of Africa - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 87547 Enrollment: Limited to 18.
Ousmane Kane (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
The majority of Arabs live in Africa, and Arabic is by far the most spoken Africa language. Yet in the academic division of labor, North Africa has been excised from the rest of Africa on the assumption that the Sahara has historically been a barrier separating Arabs from other Africans. Prior to the rise of Western hegemony, North African Arabs have maintained close ties with Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africans through religion, trade, war and diplomacy. This long history is documented by an abundant archive in Arabic language or African language in the Arabic script. Drawing from theories of knowledge and primary sources in Arabic, this seminar introduces participants to a critical study of Islamic intellectual history in Africa. It addresses critically notions like knowledge, higher learning, history, book, author, archive, orality, audiences, memory, discursive space, library, that require an adequate contextualizing to read authors of past centuries and use their writing for the study of social and intellectual history. Participants will examine how knowledge was produced, reproduced and transmitted in Muslim societies of Africa.
Note: Jointly offered with the Divinity School as 3369.
Prerequisite: Reading proficiency in Arabic.

[Islamic Civilizations 180. Contemporary Islam: Texts and Contexts]
Catalog Number: 28231
Malika Zeghal
Half course (fall term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
The course will examine ten important works in the social sciences and humanities on contemporary Islam published from the 1960s to the present day. We will pay attention to the contexts in which they were published and will analyze the conceptual assumptions that are at the foundation of these works.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

[Islamic Civilizations 183. Reform and Revival in Modern Islam, 19th -20th centuries]
Catalog Number: 15829
Malika Zeghal
Half course (spring term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
This course will shed light on the historical transformation of the internal religious reforms of Islam in the 18th and 19th century into politicized and/or fundamentalist versions of Islam in the 20th century.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with Divinity School as HDS 3362.

[Islamic Civilizations 185. Ulama, Religious Institutions, and Islamic Education in the Middle East]
Catalog Number: 73552
Malika Zeghal
Half course (spring term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
Examines the recent historiography and sociology of religious education and religious scholars (’ulama) in the Muslim world. (19th-20th centuries).
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Cross-listed Courses

History 1878b. Ottoman State and Society II (1550-1920)
[*History 1977a (formerly *History 1877a). History of the Near East, 600-1055: Conference Course]
[History of Art and Architecture 128. Topics in Arabic Art and Culture: The Medieval Mediterranean]
[History of Science 108. Bodies, Sexualities, and Medicine in the Medieval Middle East]
[History of Science 111. Two Scientific Revolutions: From the Classical Age of Islamic Sciences to the Scientific World of Early Modern Europe]
[History of Science 113. Crusades, Plagues and Hospitals: Medicine and Society in the Islamic Middle Ages]
Religion 1810. Reading the Qur’an
Religion 1816. Ismaili History and Thought
[Religion 1832. Political Islam in the 20th and 21st Centuries]

Primarily for Graduates

Islamic Civilizations 205ar. The Satanic Verses Problem in History I
Catalog Number: 0273
M. Shahab Ahmed
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6:45. EXAM GROUP: 18
Wide-ranging introduction to the Islamic intellectual tradition through primary source readings from the debate over the Satanic verses incident conducted in the discourses of sirah-maghazi, tafsir, Hadith, ‘ilm al-kalam, usul al-fiqh, Sufism, inter-sectarian polemic, inter-religious polemic, etc., from the 7th century to today.
Note: Not open to auditors. Course may not be taken pass-fail. Jointly offered with the Divinity School as 3596.
Prerequisite: Advanced Reading Proficiency in Arabic.

Islamic Civilizations 205br. The Satanic Verses Problem in History II
Catalog Number: 9511
M. Shahab Ahmed
Half course (spring term). Tu., 4–6:45. EXAM GROUP: 18
Wide-ranging introduction to the Islamic intellectual tradition through primary source readings from the debate over the Satanic verses incident conducted in the discourses of sirah-maghazi, tafsir, Hadith, ‘ilm al-kalam, usul al-fiqh, Sufism, inter-sectarian polemic, inter-religious polemic, etc, from the 7th century to today.
Note: Not open to auditors. Course may not be taken pass-fail. Jointly offered with the Divinity School as 3597.
Prerequisite: Advanced Reading Proficiency in Arabic and Islamic Civilizations 205ar.

[Islamic Civilizations 220. The Social and Cultural Lives of Islamic Law]
Catalog Number: 82565
M. Shahab Ahmed
Half course (fall term). W., 7–9 p.m. EXAM GROUP: 9
This course seeks to understand Islamic law as a part of the larger cultural life of Muslim society. We will take as an exemplary case-study the most powerful Muslim society in history: namely, Ottoman society in the 16th and 17th centuries. Two prominent heresy trials (one of a professor of philosophical theology, the other of a madrasah-graduate turned business tycoon) will be studied as the means to open up the question of the relationship of Islamic law to social and cultural norms at large. The course will examine the Ottoman-Muslim understanding of the relationship of the law to intellectual discourses such as philosophy and Sufism that subordinated the law to their respective cosmologies, as well its relationship to social practices such as wine-drinking and figural painting that were practiced with regularized impunity despite the fact that they violated legal norms, as well to canonical forms of self-expression and communication such as poetry and moral tales assertive of ethical values that tempered or marginalized the law. In this way, we will treat subjects such as freedom of expression, public and private, ethics and morality, education, social hierarchy, literary self-statement, political theory, executive and judiciary, so as to understand how Muslims conceived of the law and its authority and function in relation to other discourses and practices that made alternative claims about the constitution of Islamic norms. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a research/responsive paper.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with Harvard Law School as 2517.

[*Islamic Civilizations 221. Does the Fiqh Know a Concept of Natural Law?]
Catalog Number: 40535 Enrollment: Limited to 10.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). M., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 9
The first four sessions of the seminar will discuss different Natural Law concepts, from the Stoics to modern rational natural law. The rest of the seminar will be dedicated to the reading of usul al-fiqh texts dating from the 11th to the 17th centuries. These texts will be compared to our readings on Natural Law.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3592.

[*Islamic Civilizations 223. The Islamic Ritual’s Influence on the Legal Reasoning of the Fiqh]
Catalog Number: 55642 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). M., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 9
From the end of the 19th until the last decade of the 20th century, Western research has excluded the ritual duties (’ibadat) from the study of "Islamic Law". It is only since the 1980s that increased attention has been given to the normative character of the ritual. This seminar focuses on the influence that the legal construction of the ritual has had on the fiqh’s forms of legal reasoning in general. It will, in particular, study the concept of obligation in the ritual and other parts of the fiqh. It will also draw attention to the fact that the ritual has always been and continues to be one of the most important forms in which Islamic Law is present in Muslim societies.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3584.

[Islamic Civilizations 225. Islam, Metaphor, Meaning]
Catalog Number: 32524
M. Shahab Ahmed
Half course (spring term). M., 5–7 p.m. EXAM GROUP: 9
This course examines the hermeneutical significance of the non-literal/figurative in Islamic history. How have Muslims conceptualized, created, received, used, identified and interpreted domains, texts and images in terms of literal and non-literal expression, and with what consequences for the production of meaning in terms of Islam?
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not open to auditors. Jointly offered with the Divinity School as 3631.

[*Islamic Civilizations 241r. Approaches to Studying Indo-Muslim Culture and South Asian Islam]
Catalog Number: 7515
Ali S. Asani
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
A seminar for graduate students focusing on current scholarship on Islamic civilization in South Asia.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Open to undergraduates with a background in Islamic or South Asian studies.
Prerequisite: Introductory coursework on Islam, Religion 1820 or equivalent.

Cross-listed Courses

History 2884. Topics in Ottoman Social and Cultural History: Seminar
History 2886. Topics in Islamic History: Seminar
[History of Science 209. Science, Religion and Culture: Debates, Methods and Controversies]

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Islamic Civilizations 300. Reading and Research in Islamic Civilizations
Catalog Number: 1963
M. Shahab Ahmed 5273, Ali S. Asani 7739 (on leave fall term), Khaled El-Rouayheb 5536, William Albert Graham 4156, William E. Granara 1054, Chad Kia 2852, and Malika Zeghal 6744 (on leave 2013-14)

Jewish Studies

See also below under Aramaic, Hebrew, and Yiddish.

Jewish Studies

Primarily for Undergraduates

Jewish Studies 80. American Jews and the Television Age
Catalog Number: 84167
Rachel L. Greenblatt
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 12
Examines the involvement of Jews in American mass entertainment, especially television, during the 20th century. At a time when Jews were active in both the business and creative ends of the new media that came to dominate fields as seemingly diverse as popular culture and political discourse, Jewish leading characters were largely absent from prime time network television. Are there relationships among Jewish involvement in mass entertainment, the simultaneous absence of Jewish characters onscreen, and the role of television in American culture?

Cross-listed Courses

Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding 29. Modern Jewish Literature
[Culture and Belief 13. The Contested Bible: The Sacred-Secular Dance]
Culture and Belief 27. Among the Nations: Jewish History in Pagan, Christian and Muslim Context
[Ethical Reasoning 15 (formerly Moral Reasoning 54). “If There is No God, All is Permitted:” Theism and Moral Reasoning]
*History 60e (formerly History 1025). Overlapping Spheres: Jewish Life in Early Modern Europe
[*History 81f. Women’s Voices in Medieval and Early Modern Europe]
Religion 25. Introduction to Judaism - (New Course)

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Jewish Studies 103. Jewish Cultures in the Middle East]
Catalog Number: 46199
Susan M. Kahn
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 1–2:30.
An introduction to the cultural history of Jewish life in the Middle East. Provides an overview of the changing administrative contexts that historically governed the lives of minority populations in the Mamluk, Ottoman and Modern periods, and examines historical modes of Jewish community-building, strategies of survival, and cultural production in these settings. Finally, the course focuses on the diverse fates Middle Eastern Jewish communities in the 20th century. Readings will focus primarily on historical and anthropological accounts, though literary, cinematic and biographical sources will also be included.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

[Jewish Studies 129. Josephus]
Catalog Number: 93483
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (spring term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
A survey of the works of Flavius Josephus, and of modern Josephan scholarship. Knowledge of Greek is desirable but not required.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1468.

[Jewish Studies 136. Jews and Greeks, Judaism and Hellenism]
Catalog Number: 65408
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 10–11:30. EXAM GROUP: 12, 13
A study of the encounter between Judaism and Hellenism in antiquity, from the Hasmonean revolt until the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism. The course will focus on the land of Israel but some attention, for purposes of contrast, will also be paid to the diaspora. Themes: definitions of "Judaism" and "Hellenism," religious and philosophical resistance and accommodation, knowledge of Greek, literary forms, the "common culture" of Hellenistic near east, art and architecture.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1461.

[Jewish Studies 139 (formerly History 1020). Jews and Judaism in the Ancient World]
Catalog Number: 6035
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 10–11:30. EXAM GROUP: 12, 13
A survey of Jewish history in antiquity from the Persian period (5th century BCE) to the Byzantine period (5th century CE). Topics include: political accommodation and resistance, Hellenism, the Hasmoneans and Herod the Great, the effects of Roman rule, Pharisees, Qumran, Christians, unity and diversity, the destruction of the temple and its aftermath, the emergence of rabbinic Judaism, homeland and diaspora.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1462.

Jewish Studies 149. Topics in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Exegesis at Qumran
Catalog Number: 54969
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 18
This course explores the diverse functions of scripture within the literature of the Dead Sea Scrolls, focusing in particular on the forms and methods of interpretation attested, considered in light of other varieties of interpretation in early Judaism. Sessions will be devoted to reading, translation and discussion of primary sources in Hebrew, as well as to discussion of relevant secondary literature.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1309.
Prerequisite: Two years of Biblical Hebrew strongly recommended.

Jewish Studies 168. Eighth-Century Prophets
Catalog Number: 14062
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10. EXAM GROUP: 10, 11
A close examination of the books of Amos, Hosea, Micah, and Isaiah 1-39, in their historical and social contexts.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1104.

[*Jewish Studies 170. Job and the Problem of Suffering]
Catalog Number: 80691
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10. EXAM GROUP: 10, 11
An examination of the book of Job and its poetic treatment of the human condition. The course will also consider other biblical and ancient Near Eastern texts that deal with the issue of evil in the world from a religious perspective, and later readings and retellings of Job by Frost, MacLeish, Wiesel, Fackenheim, and others.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1106.

Cross-listed Courses

History 1083. American Jewish History - (New Course)
*History 1983. Judaism Confronts America: Conference Course - (New Course)
[Literature 140. Literature and Politics]
[Literature 153. Saul Bellow and the New York Intellectuals]
[Literature 163. Jewish Languages and Literature]
[Literature 166. The Comic Tradition in Jewish Culture]
Religion 1255. Selected Works of Twentieth Century Jewish Theology
Societies of the World 35. Conditional Equality: The Case of the Jews of Europe in Modern Times

Primarily for Graduates

[*Jewish Studies 200r. Guided Readings in Jewish History]
Catalog Number: 4478
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (fall term). M., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
Topic for 2010-11: Boundaries and Identities. Readings of Jewish texts, ancient to modern, that deal with the question of the Other and the Self: what is the boundary between Jews and non-Jews, and between Judaism and non-Judaism? Topic for 2014-15 to be determined.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3709. Required of all entering graduate students in Jewish Studies; open to others with the permission of the instructor.

Jewish Studies 207. Rewriting Scripture in Jewish Antiquity: Seminar
Catalog Number: 9572 Enrollment: Limited to 15.
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 18
A study of the exegetical literature of so-called rewritten Bible texts from the Second Temple period, considered in relation to the received Hebrew Bible and its later interpretive traditions. Examination of exegetical techniques, aims, and presuppositions, with attention to higher level compositional strategies, underlying conceptions of scripture/scriptural authority, and the dynamics of canon formation. Primary sources will include, among others: the book of Jubilees, the Temple Scroll, Reworked Pentateuch, the Genesis Apocryphon, as well as selected prophetic and hymnic exemplars.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1302.
Prerequisite: Ability to read (unpointed) Hebrew.

[Jewish Studies 215. Jewish Law from Qumran to the Mishnah: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 28993
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (spring term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
The development of Jewish law in the period between the Bible and the Mishnah, with special attention to the Qumran scrolls. Topics include: the role of Scripture and the exegesis of Scripture; the "Oral Torah" and tradition; "common Judaism" and sectarianism; the Temple and the Temple calendar. No prerequisites; all texts read in translation.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3718.

*Jewish Studies 235r. Historical Consciousness and the Jewish Historical Imagination - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 24588
Rachel L. Greenblatt
Half course (spring term). Tu., at 12, plus hours to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 14
This seminar, designed for graduate students and advanced undergraduates, will introduce participants to current research and debates on questions of Jewish historiography and historical consciousness. At its core will be attendance at the regular meetings of the Harvard Center for Jewish Study’s Starr Seminar for Spring 2014, in which six visiting fellow will present papers on their current research on this theme.
Note: Supplementary course meetings designed for the students will focus on core literature in this field and enable student participants to discuss material and arguments presented by the fellows. Students will prepare final research papers of their own.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Jewish Studies 300. Reading and Research in Jewish Studies
Catalog Number: 1544
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, Jay M. Harris 2266, and Ruth R. Wisse 3177

Modern Middle Eastern Studies

The Modern Middle East

Primarily for Undergraduates

*The Modern Middle East 91r. Supervised Reading and Research
Catalog Number: 88561
Ali S. Asani, William E. Granara, Susan M. Kahn, Malika Zeghal and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Tutorial supervision of research in subjects not treated in regular courses.

Cross-listed Courses

[Culture and Belief 41 (formerly Historical Study A-67). Gender, Islam, and Nation in the Middle East and North Africa]
*History 60f. "Nothing Pleases Me": Understanding Modern Middle Eastern History Through Literature - (New Course)
*History 60g. Debates in Middle Eastern History - (New Course)
[*History 82m. The Modern Mediterranean: Connections and Conflicts between Europe and North Africa]
Societies of the World 46 (formerly Anthropology 1621). The Anthropology of Arabia

For Undergraduates and Graduates

The Modern Middle East 100 (formerly Near Eastern Civilizations 100). Approaches to Middle Eastern Studies
Catalog Number: 12411
Susan M. Kahn
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., at 1. EXAM GROUP: 15
An interdisciplinary introduction to Middle Eastern Studies focusing on the modern period. Disciplinary approaches will include exemplary texts in History, Anthropology, Religious Studies, Literature and Political Science. Required for all concentrators in The Modern Middle East. Open to all undergraduates.
Note: A required course primarily for undergraduates pursuing a secondary field in modern Middle Eastern Studies.

[The Modern Middle East 105 (formerly Near Eastern Civilizations 105). Peoples and Societies of the Middle East]
Catalog Number: 11698
Susan M. Kahn
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
This course is an introduction to the peoples and societies of the Middle East focusing on the following areas: Islam as Culture, Family and Kinship, Communal Identities, Gender, Youth Culture and Ethnic and Religious Minorities. The course examines the varieties of cultural experiences in the Middle East through close reading of ethnographic texts, memoirs, and primary historical sources.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

The Modern Middle East 111 (formerly Islamic Civilizations 105). Culture and Society in Contemporary Iran
Catalog Number: 51277
Chad Kia
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 1, plus weekly section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 6
Introduces a wide spectrum of students to some of the most significant aspects of Iranian culture from the Constitutional Revolution through the three decades since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, one of the paradigmatic shifts in twentieth-century global history. Using the modernist commitment of artists and intellectuals to social and political engagement as a unifying theme, the course will survey modern and contemporary Iranian culture through the analysis of various literary, artistic, cinematic, and intellectual forms. The impact of European culture; nationalism; the tensions between modernism, secularism, and religion; the emergence of women’s voices, a cinematic avant-garde, and mass culture; the strains of cosmopolitan and provincial coexistence; the anti-Western critique of "occidentosis" are among the issues that will be addressed.
Note: This course, when taken for a letter grade, meets the General Education requirement for Culture and Belief or the Core area requirement for Foreign Cultures.

[The Modern Middle East 120. The Arab Revolutions: popular uprisings and political transformations]
Catalog Number: 34461
Malika Zeghal
Half course (fall term). W., 1–3; . EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
Examines the causes of the 2010-2011 Arab uprisings, the subsequent political transformations in the Middle East and North Africa and the prospects for democratic transitions.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

[The Modern Middle East 158 (formerly Arabic 158). Modern Arabic Literature Seminar: Lebanese Civil War in Fiction]
Catalog Number: 5145
Moneera Al-Ghadeer
Half course (fall term). W., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 9
The Racialized Other in the Arabian Peninsula Literature and Culture.This course introduces modern literature and contemporary technology writing in the contemporary Arabian Peninsula. Themes include ‘race’ and “otherness” and how these tropes are fashioned by political and social discourses. Readings include novels from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, and Qatar, exploring how narratives have been influenced and marked by questions of canon formation, globalization and social change.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Arabic helpful but not required. Open to both undergraduates and graduates.

The Modern Middle East 160r (formerly Turkish 160r). History of Modern Turkey through Literature
Catalog Number: 6964
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 12, and an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 5
This course surveys the history of modern Turkey and culture through Turkish literature in translation. Main focus is on topics of cultural revolution, nationalism, identity, gender, and migration. Primary readings are translations of novels, short stories, drama and poetry.
Note: Knowledge of Turkish not required. Not open to auditors.

[The Modern Middle East 175r (formerly Arabic 175r). Understanding Modern North Africa]
Catalog Number: 69851
William E. Granara
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 12. EXAM GROUP: 5
An introduction to the history, politics, cultures, societies and economics of the modern Maghrib (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya). Emphasis on the formation of evolving post-colonial identities within Islamic, Arabo-Berber, African, and Mediterranean contexts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Qualifies as a gateway course for secondary field in Modern Middle Eastern Studies.

Cross-listed courses

History 1860. Understanding the Middle East: 1800s to the Present - (New Course)
*Literature 131. The Arab-American Experience in Fiction, Film, and Popular Culture - (New Course)
[Religion 1088. Why They/We Hate Us/Them: Islam, History, Violence and Identity]

Primarily for Graduates

The Modern Middle East 200a (formerly Near Eastern Civilizations 200a). Approaches to Middle Eastern Studies
Catalog Number: 5918
Susan M. Kahn and members of the Faculty
Half course (fall term). M., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
Interdisciplinary seminar serves as an introduction to the major disciplines constituting Middle Eastern Studies, including history, political science, anthropology, literature and Islamic Studies. Faculty affiliated with Center for Middle Eastern Studies serve as guest lecturers.
Note: Required for students pursuing the AM in Middle Eastern Studies. Primarily for first-term students in the AM in Middle Eastern Studies program, although open to Graduate students in related fields.

[*The Modern Middle East 220. The Spring of 2011 in the Middle East]
Catalog Number: 92057 Enrollment: Limited to 20.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). W., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 9
The course will give an overview of the events of the Middle Eastern Spring of 2011 and will discuss the forms of communication, their content and their use of cultural and technological resources by those who insisted on regime change.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3588.

Cross-listed Courses

Comparative Literature 255. Dysfunctional Family as National Allegory in the Middle Eastern Novel - (New Course)

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*The Modern Middle East 300. Direction of Master’s Thesis
Catalog Number: 37039
Ali S. Asani 7739 (on leave fall term), William E. Granara 1054, Baber Johansen (Divinity School) 5295, Susan M. Kahn 4833, and Malika Zeghal 6744 (on leave 2013-14)

Near and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures

Akkadian

See also above under Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Akkadian A. Introductory Akkadian
Catalog Number: 4891
Gojko Barjamovic
Full course (indivisible). Fall: Tu., Th., 1:30–3; Spring: Tu., Th., 1–2:30. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16
An introduction to the Semitic language of Akkadian, primarily through the Old Babylonian dialect and cuneiform writing system as used during the time of Hammurabi (c. 1750 BCE). Students learn the fundamentals of grammar and the writing system, as well as the most common cuneiform signs in official and cursive script. Readings span a variety of genres, including private letters, judicial documents, literary and religious texts, divinatory compendia, legal code, and royal inscriptions. The course also briefly introduces students to examples of texts from other periods and dialects of the Akkadian language for cultural and comparative purposes.

Akkadian 120. Intermediate Babylonian
Catalog Number: 3724
Piotr Steinkeller
Full course (indivisible). Tu., Th., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 13
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

[Akkadian 141r. Akkadian Myths and Epics]
Catalog Number: 7618
Peter Machinist
Half course (fall term). Tu., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16
The Gilgamesh Epic.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

[Akkadian 144. Akkadian Divination Texts]
Catalog Number: 6734
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). W., 1–4. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7, 8
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Akkadian 149. Akkadian Legal and Economic Texts
Catalog Number: 6703
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 1:30–3. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

[Akkadian 153. Old Akkadian]
Catalog Number: 8334
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). Th., 1–4. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16, 17
Readings in representative historical, epistolary, literary, and economic texts with emphasis on the grammar.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

[Akkadian 154a. Peripheral Akkadian]
Catalog Number: 2416
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Two full courses in Akkadian.

[Akkadian 156. Neo-Babylonian Inscriptions]
Catalog Number: 4024
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Focuses on juridical aspects of every-day life in 1st millennium BCE Babylon. Reports of legal cases, letters and contracts allow vivid insights into interactions between persons and enhances their sometimes moving biographies. Explores the fates of murderers, thieves, slaves and foundlings; characteristics of legal decision-making bodies and the royal interventions in private law will be discussed.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

Akkadian 157. Introduction to Old Assyrian Language and History - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 90343
Gojko Barjamovic
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 11–12:30. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
Readings of texts in the Assyrian dialect of the period c. 1920-1720 BCE. Examples include loans and quittances, caravan texts, commercial records, partnership contracts, business letters, family and state law, political treaties, royal inscriptions, incantations and literature. The course will integrate the textual record with an overview of Anatolian history and material culture during the period in question.

Primarily for Graduates

Akkadian 200r. Readings in Akkadian: Seminar
Catalog Number: 2970
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Akkadian 300. Akkadian Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 2233
Peter Machinist 2812 (on leave 2013-14) and Piotr Steinkeller 7337

Arabic

See also Islamic Civilizations.

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-listed Courses

*Literature 131. The Arab-American Experience in Fiction, Film, and Popular Culture - (New Course)

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Arabic A. Elementary Arabic
Catalog Number: 5773
Dalia Abo Haggar and staff
Full course (indivisible). M., through F., at 9, 10, 11, or 12. EXAM GROUP: 2, 11
Introduces students to the phonology and script of classical/modern standard Arabic and covers the basic morphology and syntax of the written language. Emphasis on the development of the four skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing). Samples of modern (contemporary) and classical styles of writing introduced into basic syllabus, and audio-visual material from the contemporary Arabic media. Required textbooks: (1) Alif Baa (with multimedia), 2nd edition. (2) Al-Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-’Arabiyya:, Part I, 2nd edition.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4345.

Arabic Ba. Intermediate Arabic I
Catalog Number: 1106
Nour Barmada and staff
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 9, 10, 11, or 12. EXAM GROUP: 3, 12
A thorough review and continuation of literary (classic and modern) Arabic grammar with emphasis on reading, writing, speaking and listening comprehension. Course materials draw from both classical and modern Arabic literature and culture. Required textbook: Al-Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-Arabiyya, Part II with DVDs, 2nd edition.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4351.
Prerequisite: Arabic A or equivalent.

Arabic Bb. Intermediate Arabic II
Catalog Number: 0973
Nour Barmada and staff
Half course (spring term). M., through F., at 9, 10, or 12. EXAM GROUP: 2, 11
A continuation of Arabic Ba. Textbook: Al-Kitaab, volume II, 2nd edition.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4361.
Prerequisite: Arabic A or equivalent.

Arabic 130a. Upper-Level Classical Arabic I
Catalog Number: 4591
Dalia Abo Haggar
Half course (fall term). M., Tu., Th., at 9. EXAM GROUP: 2, 11
Concentration on readings from classical Islamic texts, with emphasis on Qur’an, hadîth, sîra, and tafsîr literature; directed readings and textual analysis; review of classical Arabic morphology and syntax.
Note: Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4353.
Prerequisite: Arabic Ba or equivalent, or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor.

Arabic 130b. Upper-Level Classical Arabic II
Catalog Number: 2964
Dalia Abo Haggar
Half course (spring term). M., Tu., Th., at 9. EXAM GROUP: 2, 11
Continuation of Arabic 130a or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor. Readings from corpus of "Adab" (Belles-Lettres) literature, as well as various pieces of classical Arabic poetry.
Note: Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4354.
Prerequisite: Arabic 130a or equivalent, or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor.

Arabic 131a. Upper-Level Modern Arabic l
Catalog Number: 0739
Nevenka Korica-Sullivan
Half course (fall term). Section l: M. through Th., at 11; Section ll: M. through Th., at 12. EXAM GROUP: 5, 14
Reading and discussion of selections from Arabic newspapers and journals on contemporary political, social, religious, and cultural issues in the Arab world. Emphasis on developing advanced reading and speaking skills, with some attention to writing and listening comprehension. Required textbook: al-Kitaab -Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-Arabiyya, Part III with DVDs.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Arabic Ba or equivalent.

Arabic 131b. Upper-Level Modern Arabic II
Catalog Number: 0697
Nevenka Korica-Sullivan
Half course (spring term). M. through Th., at 11 or 12. EXAM GROUP: 5, 14
A continuation of Arabic 131a or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor. Continued emphasis on advanced reading and speaking skills, and introduction to contemporary Arabic fiction, with emphasis on short stories and essays. Required textbook: al-Kitaab -Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-Arabiyya, Part III with DVDs.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Arabic 131a or equivalent.

[Arabic 132. Advanced Composition and Grammar Review]
Catalog Number: 74782 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Nevenka Korica-Sullivan
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Course introduces students to the stylistics of Arabic composition while reinforcing complex morphological and syntactic structures.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not eligible for language citation.
Prerequisite: Two years of Modern Standard Arabic or equivalent.

Arabic 133. Upper-Level Spoken Modern Standard Arabic
Catalog Number: 4747 Enrollment: Limited to 15.
William E. Granara
Half course (fall term). M., W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 8, 9
This course emphasizes the development of advanced speaking and listening skills by exposing students to the contemporary media and academia. Some reading and writing will be required, but classes will revolve around oral presentations and directed conversations.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Two years of MSA or equivalent proficiency.

[Arabic 134. Colloquial Levantine Arabic]
Catalog Number: 4154 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Nour Barmada
Half course (spring term). M., W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 8, 9
Introduces students to Colloquial Levantine Arabic of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel/Palestine. The course emphasizes the development of speaking and listening skills through the reinforcement of grammar and vocabulary.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not open to auditors. Students who have completed Arabic 135 may not take this course for credit.
Prerequisite: Two years of Standard Arabic or the equivalent.

Arabic 135. Colloquial Egyptian Arabic
Catalog Number: 4454 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Nevenka Korica-Sullivan
Half course (spring term). M., W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 8, 9
Introduces students to Egyptian Arabic, the most widely recognized dialect in the Arab world. The course emphasizes the development of speaking and listening skills through the reinforcement of grammar and vocabulary.
Note: Not open to auditors. Students who have completed Arabic 134 may not take this course for credit.
Prerequisite: Two years of Standard Arabic or the equivalent.

[Arabic 160r. Readings in Arabic Historians, Geographers, and Biographers]
Catalog Number: 5617
Roy Mottahedeh
Half course (fall term). W., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 9
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Primarily for Graduates

Arabic 241ar. Advanced Modern Arabic Bridge: Language, Literature, and Culture I
Catalog Number: 3309
Sami Alkyam
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 11:30-1, and an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
This constitutes the final year of Modern Arabic track. Representative readings from contemporary literature and culture will form bases of discussions on major themes in contemporary Arab society.
Note: Conducted in Arabic. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Advanced proficiency in Arabic.

Arabic 241br. Advanced Modern Arabic Bridge: Language, Literature, and Culture II
Catalog Number: 6399
Sami Alkyam
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30-1, and an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
A continuation of Arabic 241ar.
Note: Conducted in Arabic. Not open to auditors.

*Arabic 242ar. Arabic Five
Catalog Number: 44568 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Sami Alkyam
Half course (fall term). M., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 9
The Arabic short story: traditions and subversions.
Note: Course conducted solely in Arabic; all readings in Arabic.
Prerequisite: Four years of Modern Arabic or equivalent.

*Arabic 242br. Arabic Five
Catalog Number: 59675
William E. Granara
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Topic for spring 2014 to be determined. Interested students should contact the course head, William Granara, at granara@fas.harvard.edu.
Note: Course conducted solely in Arabic; all readings in Arabic.
Prerequisite: Four years of Modern Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

Arabic 243ar. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge I: Historical Sources - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 41216
William E. Granara
Half course (fall term). W., 9–11, plus one hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 2, 3
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to various genres of historical, geographical and biographical texts.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

Arabic 243br. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge II: Rational Sciences - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 77091
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to the genres of usul, kalam, mantiq and falsafa.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

[Arabic 243cr. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge III: Prose and Poetry] - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 11917
William E. Granara
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to various genres of poetry and prose (adab).
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

[Arabic 243dr. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge IV: Religious Sciences] - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 66382
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to various genres of Quran, Hadith, Sira and Tafsir.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

[Arabic 246r. Andalus, Sicily, and the Maghrib in Literary and Cultural Texts: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 6196
William E. Granara
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Literary and historical texts of the Arabo-Islamic cultures of Spain (al-Andalus), Sicily, and North Africa. Examines the emergence of a "Maghribi" identity amidst cross-cultural relations with the Christian North and the Muslim East.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic, or permission from the instructor.

Arabic 249r. Arabic Philosophical Texts: Seminar
Catalog Number: 3572
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
Readings on selected topics in Islamic philosophy.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent.

Arabic 250r. Islamic Theological Texts: Seminar
Catalog Number: 7849
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (spring term). M., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
Readings on selected topics in Islamic theology.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3883. Students will be expected to read approximately 15-20 pages of classical Arabic per week.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or permission of the instructor.

Cross-listed Courses

[Comparative Literature 263. Journey, Exile, and Displacement in Modern Arabic Literature]

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Arabic 300. Reading and Research in Arabic Language and Civilization
Catalog Number: 7828
M. Shahab Ahmed 5273, Khaled El-Rouayheb 5536, William Albert Graham 4156, William E. Granara 1054, Baber Johansen (Divinity School) 5295, and Roy Mottahedeh 1454 (on leave spring term)

*Arabic 320. Reading and Research in Modern Arabic Literature and Literary Criticism
Catalog Number: 9167
William E. Granara 1054

Aramaic

For Undergraduates and Graduates

See also Ancient Near East and Biblical Studies, Jewish Studies, and Early Iranian Civilizations.

Aramaic A. Introduction to Ancient Aramaic
Catalog Number: 5985
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
Introduction to the ancient Aramaic dialects, including Biblical Aramaic, Imperial Aramaic from Egypt, and Palestinian Aramaic.
Prerequisite: Two semesters of Biblical Hebrew.

[Aramaic B. Targumic and Related Aramaic]
Catalog Number: 89499
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
Readings in Egyptian, Palestinian and targumic Aramaic, with special focus on the grammar, literary form and function of the Targumim.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Aramaic A or the equivalent.

[Aramaic 120. Introduction to Jewish Babylonian Aramaic]
Catalog Number: 68552
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 13, 14
Introduction to the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud with readings from talmudic texts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Two semesters or the equivalent of Hebrew or one semester or the equivalent of ancient Aramaic. Jointly offered with the Divinity School as 4018.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Aramaic 300. Aramaic Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 5758
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, Khaled El-Rouayheb 5536, and Peter Machinist 2812 (on leave 2013-14)

Armenian

See also Armenian Studies.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Armenian A. Elementary Classical Armenian
Catalog Number: 5476
James R. Russell
Full course (indivisible). Tu., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
Introduction to classical Armenian grammar and reading of selected texts.

Armenian B. Elementary Modern Eastern Armenian
Catalog Number: 7168
James R. Russell
Full course (indivisible). Th., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 18
Introduction to the spoken and literary language of the Republic of Armenia.

[Armenian 120. Armenian Magical Texts]
Catalog Number: 7221
James R. Russell
Half course (spring term). Tu., 2–4.
Armenian magical texts include codices, scrolls, and separately-printed saints’ lives used for good or ill, containing magic squares and symbols, the latter mostly deriving from Islamic magic. The course will consider literary sources of magic texts (e.g., the prayer Havatov khostovanim, the meditations of Narek), parallel traditions (esp. Christian Ethiopia), and the consideration of the paintings in Armenian magical manuscripts from the standpoint of the genre of Outsider Art.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 2200.

[Armenian 130. Advanced Classical Armenian]
Catalog Number: 4926
James R. Russell
Full course. W., 5:30-7:30 pm. EXAM GROUP: Fall: 9
The text of St. Grigor Narekats’i Matean olbergut’ean, with other mystical texts from Armenian and Eastern Christian traditions.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Armenian A.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Armenian 300. Armenian Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 0240
James R. Russell 3411

Egyptian

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Egyptian Aa. The Language of the Pharaohs: Introduction to Egyptian hieroglyphs I]
Catalog Number: 13886
Peter Der Manuelian
Half course (fall term). M., W., 1:30–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
This language course explores the fundamentals of Middle Egyptian, the classical stage of Egyptian hieroglyphs used throughout much of ancient Egyptian history. Lessons in the Egyptian writing system, grammar, and culture, with weekly vocabulary and exercises, will introduce the language and verbal system in a systematic fashion. By the end of the semester, students may begin to read selections from Egyptian classic stories and historical texts. Visits to the Semitic Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in order to read ancient hieroglyphic inscriptions on the original monuments, may also be included.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Continues as Egyptian Ab. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4120.

[Egyptian Ab. The Language of the Pharaohs: Introduction to Egyptian hieroglyphs II]
Catalog Number: 80515
Peter Der Manuelian
Half course (spring term). M., W., 1:30–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
Continues Middle Egyptian I from the spring 2013 semester. Students will complete the introductory grammar book lessons, and move on to read a selection of basic stories, historical and biographical inscriptions, in the original hieroglyphs. Visits to the Egyptian galleries of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in order to read some of the ancient hieroglyphic inscriptions on the original monuments, may also be included.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4121.
Prerequisite: Egyptian Aa, Middle Egyptian I or consent of instructor.

*Egyptian 125. Sex, Gender, and Religion in Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syria-Palestine - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 31754 Enrollment: Limited to 15.
Jacquelyn Williamson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). M., 12–2. EXAM GROUP: 5, 6
This course will place later Judeo-Christian ideas of gender and sexuality within the context of cultures that came before those of the Bible. Key texts will be read in translation from all over the ancient Mediterranean. Discussion of these textual sources will be grounded in presentations of the visual culture of these countries as well, in particular temple art and architecture. Topics include sexuality as propaganda; the manipulation of the nonverbal language of gender in iconography; the role of sex in the ancient cult; and virginity and its association with ritual purity.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3108.

[*Egyptian 150. Voices from the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Literature in Translation]
Catalog Number: 19657 Enrollment: Limited to 20.
Peter Der Manuelian
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4
Examines several literary genres, from the Pyramid Age through at least the New Kingdom (ca. 2500-1000 BCE), including royal decrees, autobiographies, the Pyramid Texts, legal documents, letters to the living (and dead), love stories and poetry, military texts, religious rituals, and tomb robber court trial transcripts. Special emphasis on classical tales of the Middle Kingdom ("The Shipwrecked Sailor," "The Story of Sinuhe," etc.). Lectures, class discussion; no prerequisites.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 2131.

Cross-listed Courses

[Anthropology 1250. The Pyramids of Giza: Technology, Archaeology, History: Seminar]
*Freshman Seminar 30g. Digging Up the Past: Harvard and Egyptian Archaeology
[Societies of the World 38. Pyramid Schemes: The Archaeological History of Ancient Egypt]

Primarily for Graduates

Cross-listed Courses

*Anthropology 2022. Picturing the Past: An Introduction to Digital Epigraphy and Archaeological Illustration - (New Course)

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Egyptian 300. Reading and Research in Egyptology
Catalog Number: 71257
Peter Der Manuelian 4279 (on leave spring term)
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: This course must be taken for letter grade. Professor Manuelian is on leave spring term 2014; this course will not be offered spring 2014.

Hebrew (Classical and Modern)

See also Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies and Jewish Studies.

Hebrew Language

Classical Hebrew

Classical Hebrew A. Elementary Classical Hebrew
Catalog Number: 8125
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Full course (indivisible). M., W., F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 3
A thorough and rigorous introduction to Biblical Hebrew, with emphasis on grammar in the first term, and translation of biblical prose in the second. Daily preparation and active class participation mandatory.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4010.

Classical Hebrew 120a. Intermediate Classical Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 5545
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School) and members of the Department
Half course (fall term). M., W., F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 3
Readings in prose books; review of grammar.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4020.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew A or equivalent.

Classical Hebrew 120b. Intermediate Classical Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 8494
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School) and members of the Department
Half course (spring term). M., W., F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4
Readings in prose and poetic books; review of grammar.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4021.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew 120a or equivalent.

Classical Hebrew 130ar. Rapid Reading Classical Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 7895
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). F., 11–1. EXAM GROUP: 4, 5
Advanced reading in selected biblical prose texts and intensive review of the grammar of Biblical Hebrew.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1625.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew A, 120a, and 120b, or equivalent.

Classical Hebrew 130br. Rapid Reading Classical Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 7896
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16
Advanced reading in selected biblical poetic texts and intensive review of the grammar of Biblical Hebrew.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1626.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew 130a or equivalent.

Classical Hebrew 138. Historical Grammar of Biblical Hebrew
Catalog Number: 4415
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
This course will trace the changes in Hebrew grammar in its ancient phases through the study of inscriptional, biblical, and extra-biblical texts.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew 130 or equivalent.

Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew B. Elementary Modern Hebrew
Catalog Number: 4810
Irit Aharony
Full course (indivisible). M. through F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 3, 12
The course introduces students to the phonology and script as well as the fundamentals of morphology and syntax of Modern Hebrew. Emphasis is placed on developing reading, speaking, comprehension and writing skills, while introducing students to various aspects of contemporary Israeli society and culture.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4015. Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit.

Modern Hebrew 120a. Intermediate Modern Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 1711
Irit Aharony
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4, 13
The course reinforces and expands knowledge of linguistic and grammatical structures, with emphasis on further developing the four skills. Readings include selections from contemporary Israeli literature, print media, and internet publications. Readings and class discussions cover various facets of Israeli high and popular culture.
Note: Conducted primarily in Hebrew. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4040.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew B or passing of special departmental placement test.

Modern Hebrew 120b. Intermediate Modern Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 2563
Irit Aharony
Half course (spring term). M. through Th., at 11; F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4, 13
Continuation of Hebrew 120a.
Note: Conducted primarily in Hebrew. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4041.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 120a.

Modern Hebrew 130a (formerly Modern Hebrew 125a). Advanced Modern Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 4985
Irit Aharony and assistant
Half course (fall term). M., W., 1–2:30. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
This course constitutes the third year of the Modern Hebrew language sequence. The course emphasizes the development of advanced proficiency in all skills. Readings include texts of linguistic and cultural complexity that cover contemporary Israeli literature and culture.
Note: Conducted in Hebrew. Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4042.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 120a, 120b, or equivalent level of proficiency.

Modern Hebrew 130b (formerly Modern Hebrew 125b). Advanced Modern Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 28788
Irit Aharony and assistant
Half course (spring term). M., W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
This course is a continuation of Hebrew 130a. Texts, films, and other materials expose students to the richness and complexity of the contemporary sociolinguistics of Israeli society.
Note: Conducted in Hebrew. Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4043.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 130a, or equivalent level of proficiency.

Modern Hebrew 241r. Advanced Seminar in Modern Hebrew: Israeli Culture
Catalog Number: 6949
Irit Aharony
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16
This course constitutes the final level of Modern Hebrew language studies. The course offers representative readings and screenings from contemporary Israeli literature and cinema, and it forms bases of discussion on major cultural and linguistic themes through academic readings.
Note: Discussions, papers, movies and texts presented only in Hebrew. Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4045.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 130b or equivalent.

Hebrew Literature and History

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Hebrew 130. Scriptural Interpretation in Ancient Israel: Inner-Biblical Exegesis]
Catalog Number: 53182
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 18
An examination of the forms, methods, and aims of scriptural interpretation within the Hebrew Bible itself. Sessions will combine consideration of recent scholarship on "inner-biblical exegesis" with close readings of biblical texts (narrative, legal, prophetic, apocalyptic, hymnic) in Hebrew.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Two years of Biblical Hebrew strongly recommended. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1308.

Hebrew 135. Introduction to Rabbinic Hebrew
Catalog Number: 83659
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). M., W., 9–10:30. EXAM GROUP: 2, 3
Introduction to Tannaitic and Amoraic Hebrew with readings from talmudic and midrashic literature.
Note: Jointly offered with the Divinity school is 4036.
Prerequisite: Two semesters or the equivalent of Hebrew, preferably Biblical Hebrew.

Primarily for Graduates

[*Hebrew 200r. Problems in the Literature, History, and Religion of Ancient Israel: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 3265
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School), Richard J. Saley and members of the Department
Half course (fall term). Th., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 18
Topic for 2013-14 to be determined.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Primarily for doctoral students in Hebrew Bible. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1810.

[Hebrew 208r. Literature of Israel: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 1356
Peter Machinist
Half course (fall term). W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 8, 9
Topic for 2014-15 to be determined.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Jointly offered with the Divinity School as 1825.
Prerequisite: Good reading knowledge of Biblical Hebrew. Acquaintance with other relevant ancient and modern languages desirable.

[Hebrew 217. The Medieval Torah Commentary: A Practical Introduction: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 5883
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
An introduction to the use of medieval Jewish biblical commentaries as a resource for modern exegetes. Some comparison of the medieval hermeneutical presuppositions with those of the distinctively modern forms of biblical study.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1836.
Prerequisite: Three years of college-level Hebrew (any period).

[Hebrew 218. Joseph and Esther: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 0880
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
A close critical reading of Genesis 37-50 and the Book of Esther in Hebrew. Emphasis on literary design and religious messages and on the influence of the story of Joseph upon the Book of Esther.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1802.
Prerequisite: Three years of Hebrew or the equivalent, and a good acquaintance with the historical-critical method.

*Hebrew 226r. Seminar in Jewish Studies
Catalog Number: 42458
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
An overview of the methods, questions, and controversies in the field of Jewish Studies over the last two centuries. Topic for 2013-14: Mishnah Eduyot and the beginnings of the Mishnah, with special attention to the history of scholarship and issues of method.
Prerequisite: Facility in reading rabbinic Hebrew. Permission of the instructor required for all students.

[Hebrew 230. Midrash: The Figure of Abraham: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 7364
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
A close reading in Hebrew of some rabbinic midrashim centering on the figure of Abraham. Emphasis on the acquisition of the textual skills necessary for studying midrash and understanding the role of Abraham in rabbinic theology. Comparison with other primary sources about Abraham from Second Temple Judaism, early Christianity, and the Qur’an, presented in English.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1803.
Prerequisite: Sound reading knowledge of Hebrew (any period).

[Hebrew 235. The Binding of Isaac (Aqedah): Seminar]
Catalog Number: 0170
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
An examination of Genesis 22 and its afterlife in ancient Judaism, early Christianity, and the Qur’an. Ample consideration of the interpretation and expansion of the story in modern theology and of critical responses to the story.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1808.
Prerequisite: Three years of Hebrew or the equivalent, and acquaintance with historical critical methods.

Hebrew 236. Song at the Sea: Seminar
Catalog Number: 6496
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Th., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
A close reading of Exodus 13:17-15:21 in the context of the Hebrew Bible together with its ancient Near Eastern background. Ample Hebrew readings in this block of material and parallel biblical texts.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1816.
Prerequisite: An introductory course in the critical study of the Hebrew Bible and a solid command of Hebrew grammar (any period).

[Hebrew 237. Jeremiah]
Catalog Number: 83454
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10. EXAM GROUP: 10, 11
A close examination of the book of Jeremiah, with special attention to its historical context and textual and literary history. Knowledge of Hebrew not required.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1121.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Hebrew Bible/Old Testament or the equivalent.

Hebrew 238. Readings in Midrash: Seminar - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 36275
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
Close reading in Hebrew of selections from the Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael with the goal of understanding the nature of biblical interpretation in rabbinic Judaism and the shape of rabbinic theology.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3678.
Prerequisite: Three years of college level Hebrew (any period) or the equivalent.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Hebrew 300. Classical Hebrew Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 7831
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, and Peter Machinist 2812 (on leave 2013-14)

*Hebrew 350. Hebrew Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 4408
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, Jay M. Harris 2266, and Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264

Iranian

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations; Early Iranian Civilizations; Islamic Civilizations; and below under Persian.

Primarily for Undergraduates

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Iranian Aab. Old Persian
Catalog Number: 5457
P. Oktor Skjaervo
Full course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Introduction to Old Persian.

Iranian B. Introduction to Western Middle Iranian - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 86585
James R. Russell
Full course. Tu., 6–8 p.m. EXAM GROUP: 18
An introduction to the pre-Islamic languages and literatures of Parthian and Sasanian Iran and Zoroastrian sacred texts, and their alphabets.
Note: There are no prerequisites for this course.

Cross-listed Courses

Linguistics 221r. Workshop in Indo-European

Primarily for Graduates

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Iranian 300. Reading and Research in Iranian Languages and Literatures
Catalog Number: 8155
James R. Russell 3411 and P. Oktor Skjaervo 2869 (on leave spring term)

Persian

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations; Early Iranian Civilizations; Islamic Civilizations; Iranian.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Persian A. Elementary Persian
Catalog Number: 8143
Daniel Reza Rafinejad
Full course (indivisible). M. through F. at 10, and a weekly section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 3, 12
Introduction to the grammar of modern literary and spoken Persian. Selected readings from contemporary and classical Persian literature.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit.

Persian Ba. Intermediate Persian I
Catalog Number: 2206
Daniel Reza Rafinejad
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4, 13
A thorough review and continuation of modern Persian grammar with an emphasis on reading, writing, speaking, and listening comprehension. Includes an introduction to classical prosody. Course materials draw from both classical and modern poetry and prose.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail.
Prerequisite: Persian A or the equivalent.

Persian Bb. Intermediate Persian II
Catalog Number: 3712
Daniel Reza Rafinejad
Half course (spring term). M. through F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4, 13
Continuation of Persian Ba.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail.

Persian 130ar. Advanced Persian I - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 73988
Chad Kia
Half course (fall term). M., W., 2–3:30, plus an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
Review of advanced Persian grammar and syntax with introduction to both pre-modern and modern Persian prose and poetry. Themes cover a wide range of disciplines, from literature, history, social sciences and the arts.
Note: Formerly Persian 131r and Persian 132r.
Prerequisite: Persian B or equivalent, or permission of the instructor.

Persian 130br. Advanced Persian II - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 89002
Daniel Reza Rafinejad
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 1–2:30, plus an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16
Continuation of Persian 130ar.
Note: Formerly Persian 131r and Persian 132r.
Prerequisite: Persian B or equivalent, or permission of the instructor.

[Persian 150r. Readings in Persian Historians, Geographers and Biographers]
Catalog Number: 6538
Roy Mottahedeh
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Persian 151r. Sufi Traditions in Classical Persian Literature: Rumi’s Masnavi
Catalog Number: 58728
Chad Kia
Half course (spring term). W., 2–3:30. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
The course focuses on Islamic mysticism’s most famous poet, Rumi, and his great work the Masnavi. We will begin by tracing Sufism as a theme in Persian literary works before the 13th century, especially in the works of Sanai and Attar, leading up to Rumi’s particular understanding of mysticism as articulated in his lyric verse and other writings. Major aspects of Rumi’s work, including his concept of the divine and unity with the beloved, themes of self-deception, reason, knowledge and suppression of the ego, as well as the Masnavi’s assimilation of popular fables, Quranic revelations, and emphatically profane tales will be considered. The course will also situate Rumi and Persian Sufi literature within the larger context of medieval Islam.
Note: The course lectures and readings will be in English but there will be a separate section for students with adequate knowledge of Persian to read the text of the Masnavi in Persian. Offered jointly by the Divinity School as 4070.
Prerequisite: At least two years of Persian or equivalent.

Persian 152. Literary and Visual Narrative in the Persian Epic Tradition
Catalog Number: 67634
Chad Kia
Half course (fall term). Tu., 1:30–3:30. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16, 17
Both poetry and the art of painting in medieval Persianate cultures developed to a high level of artistic excellence in the context of court patronage. This advanced Persian reading course examines that development through the epic tradition in classical Persian poetry including long narratives in heroic, romance and ethical genres composed in the masnavi (double-rhymed verse) form, and considers the parallel art of manuscript illustration as a visual dimension of that narrative. Beginning with the heroic epic of Shahnameh by Ferdowsi, this survey of long narrative poetry in masnavi form will include the epic romances of Nizami and didactic epics by Sa‘di and others and will consider the interaction of this poetry with Persian painting and manuscript illustration.
Prerequisite: Two years of Persian or equivalent.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Persian 300. Persian Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 6962
Roy Mottahedeh 1454 (on leave spring term), William E. Granara 1054, and Chad Kia 2852 (spring term only)

Semitic Philology

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Semitic Philology 130. Diglossia in Semitic Languages]
Catalog Number: 82868
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Th., 3–5.
Diglossia describes a situation in which two (or more) languages coexist, or two varieties of one language, within one speech community. In this course we will examine various aspects of such a linguistic situation from different theoretical points of view, considering this fascinating phenomenon in the history of the Semitic languages.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Semitic Philology 151. Introduction to Northwest Semitic Epigraphy
Catalog Number: 2858
John L. Ellison and staff
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Readings in Hebrew, Phoenician and other Northwest Semitic inscriptions with an introduction to methods and techniques of Northwest Semitic palaeography, and attention to problems of historical grammar.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1152.
Prerequisite: Good working knowledge of Classical (Biblical) Hebrew.

[Semitic Philology 152. Introduction to Ugaritic]
Catalog Number: 2777
John L. Ellison and staff
Half course (fall term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
Introduction to Ugaritic grammar, with readings in mythological, epistolary, and administrative texts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Expected to be given in 2014–15. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1153.
Prerequisite: Good working knowledge of Classical (Biblical) Hebrew.

Primarily for Graduates

Semitic Philology 220r. Northwest Semitic Epigraphy: Seminar
Catalog Number: 2948
John L. Ellison and staff
Half course (spring term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
Topic for 2013-14 to be determined; topic for 2012-13 was "Advanced discussion of Ugaritic grammar and texts."
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1160.
Prerequisite: Semitic Philology 151.

Cross-listed Courses

Linguistics 221r. Workshop in Indo-European

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Semitic Philology 300. Semitic and Afroasiatic Languages and Literatures
Catalog Number: 2762
Members of the Department

Sumerian

See also above under Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Sumerian A. Elementary Sumerian
Catalog Number: 5260
Piotr Steinkeller
Full course (indivisible). Fall: Tu., Th., at 1; Spring: Th., 1:30–4:30. EXAM GROUP: Fall: 15; Spring: 15, 16, 17, 18
Introduction to the Sumerian language with emphasis on grammatical structure.

[Sumerian 120. Intermediate Sumerian]
Catalog Number: 7399
Piotr Steinkeller and assistant
Full course (indivisible). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Knowledge of basic Sumerian grammar, vocabulary, and cuneiform script.

Sumerian 140. Sumerian Historical Texts
Catalog Number: 35916
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). W., 1–4. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7, 8

Sumerian 141. Sumerian Myths and Epics
Catalog Number: 9858
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.

[Sumerian 145. Sumerian Incantations and Rituals]
Catalog Number: 5259
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). W., 1–4. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7, 8
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

[Sumerian 146. Sumerian Religious Literature]
Catalog Number: 2605
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

[Sumerian 149. Sumerian Legal and Economic Texts]
Catalog Number: 8820
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Tu., 1–4. EXAM GROUP: 15, 16, 17
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Primarily for Graduates

[Sumerian 200r. Readings in Sumerian: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 7496
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Sumerian 300. Sumerian Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 7912
Piotr Steinkeller 7337

Cross-listed Courses

[Linguistics 225a. Introduction to Hittite]

Turkish (Ottoman and Modern)

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations; Islamic Civilizations.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Turkish A. Elementary Modern Turkish]
Catalog Number: 2527
Himmet Taskomur
Full course (indivisible). M. through F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 3, 12
Emphasis on all aspects of Turkish grammar toward developing a solid foundation for speaking, listening, reading, writing, and vocabulary skills.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit.

Turkish 120a. Intermediate Modern Turkish I
Catalog Number: 4009
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 3, 12
Emphasis on complex sentence structure and building communicative competence in describing events and expressing ideas through exercises in reading, writing, and speaking.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish A or equivalent.

Turkish 120b. Intermediate Modern Turkish II
Catalog Number: 1394
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). M. through F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 3, 12
Studies in argumentative and literary prose.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 120a or equivalent.

Turkish 121. Elementary Uzbek
Catalog Number: 14198
William E. Granara and assistant
Full course (indivisible). Fall: M. through Th., at 9. EXAM GROUP: Fall: 2, 11
Introduction to conversational and literary Uzbek. Overview of the grammar, intensive practice of the spoken language, and reading of contemporary texts.
Note: Some knowledge of Modern Turkish or other Turkic language helpful but not required. For information on Uzbek instruction at other levels, please contact the Student Programs Officer at the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, reeca@fas.harvard.edu.

Turkish 125a. Intermediate Uzbek I
Catalog Number: 2947
William E. Granara and assistant
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Continuation of Elementary Uzbek with an emphasis on further development of both conversational and literary Uzbek.
Note: For information on Uzbek instruction at other levels, please contact the Student Programs Officer at the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, reeca@fas.harvard.edu.
Prerequisite: Turkish 121b or equivalent.

Turkish 125b. Intermediate Uzbek II
Catalog Number: 0125
William E. Granara and assistant
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
A continuation of Turkish 125a.
Prerequisite: Turkish 125a or equivalent.

[Turkish 130a. Advanced Turkish I]
Catalog Number: 42651
William E. Granara and assistant
Half course (fall term). M., 2–4, W., 2–5.
Gaining and improving advanced language skills in Modern Turkish through reading, writing, listening, and speaking with special emphasis on the proper usage of vocabulary and idiomatic expressions.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not open to auditors.

[Turkish 130b. Advanced Turkish II]
Catalog Number: 4354
William E. Granara and assistant
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Studies in literary and idiomatic prose through readings, discussions, and writing of short analytical papers.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 130a or equivalent.

[Turkish 140a. Introduction to Ottoman Turkish I]
Catalog Number: 8163
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (fall term). Section I: M., W., 12–2; Section II: M., 3–5, W., 2–4.
Introduction to basic orthographic conventions and grammatical characteristics of Ottoman Turkish through readings in printed selections from the 19th and 20th centuries, and exercises on techniques.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish A or equivalent; one year of Arabic or Persian desirable.

[Turkish 140b. Introduction to Ottoman Turkish II]
Catalog Number: 8298
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Continuation of Turkish 140a. Exercises on specialized orthographic conventions and grammatical characteristics of Ottoman Turkish through readings in printed selections from the 19th and 20th centuries.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 140a or equivalent.

[Turkish 145. Readings in Ottoman Language and Culture: Early Modern Travel Literature]
Catalog Number: 0095
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Theme: "Early Modern Travel Literature". The course introduces students to various genres of travel writing by focusing on selected themes, including language registers, styles of travelogues.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Advanced reading proficiency in Ottoman Turkish.

Turkish 150a. Advanced Ottoman Turkish: Readings on Ottoman Cultural History between 15th to 18th centuries.
Catalog Number: 91716
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (fall term). M., Th., 5–7:30 p.m. EXAM GROUP: 9, 18
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 140 or equivalent; one year of Arabic or Persian desirable.

*Turkish 150b. Advanced Ottoman Turkish
Catalog Number: 40194
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). M., 2–4, F., 2:30–4:30. EXAM GROUP: 7, 8
Bureaucracy and Empire: Introduction to Ottoman Archival Research. The course introduces research tools for Ottoman archives and surveys central government documents focusing on paleography, diplomatics and linguistic features of documents.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 140 or equivalent; one year of Arabic or Persian desirable.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Turkish 300. Turkish Languages and Literatures
Catalog Number: 7702
William E. Granara 1054, Cemal Kafadar 2459, and Himmet Taskomur 6296

Yiddish

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations: Jewish Studies.

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-Listed Courses

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Yiddish A. Elementary Yiddish
Catalog Number: 4623
Eitan Lev Kensky and staff
Full course (indivisible). M., W., (F.), at 10. EXAM GROUP: 3
Introduction to the Yiddish language, as written and spoken in Eastern Europe, the Americas, Israel, and around the world, and to the culture of Ashkenazic Jews. Development of reading, writing, speaking, and oral comprehension skills. Course materials include rich selections from Jewish humor, Yiddish songs, and films of Jewish life past and present.
Note: For students with little or no knowledge of Yiddish. Additional sections at different times may be added as needed.

Yiddish Ba. Intermediate Yiddish I
Catalog Number: 6023
Eitan Lev Kensky and staff
Half course (fall term). M., W., (F.), at 12.
Further development of reading, writing, speaking, and oral comprehension skills. Introduction to features of the main Yiddish dialects: Polish/Galician, Ukrainian/Volhynian, and Lithuanian/Belorussian. Course materials include selections from modern Yiddish fiction, poetry, songs, the press, and private letters, as well as pre-WWII and contemporary Yiddish films. Occasional visits from native Yiddish speakers.
Note: Additional sections at different times may be added as needed.
Prerequisite: Yiddish A or equivalent.

Yiddish Bb. Intermediate Yiddish II
Catalog Number: 1239
Eitan Lev Kensky and staff
Half course (spring term). M., W., (F.), at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4
Continuation of Yiddish Ba.
Prerequisite: Yiddish Ba or permission of the instructor.

[Yiddish Ca. Advanced Yiddish I]
Catalog Number: 8331 Enrollment: To enroll, please contact the instructor.
Ruth R. Wisse and staff
Half course (fall term). M., W., 1–2:30. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
Emphasis on building advanced vocabulary from the three main lexical components, Germanic, Hebrew-Aramaic, and Slavic, and further development of writing, reading, and speech. Continued exploration of the main Yiddish dialects. Introduction to various styles of Yiddish literature, journalism, theater, film, and song, particularly from the nineteenth century to the present, including contemporary sources from both secular Yiddish culture and the Yiddish-speaking "ultra-orthodox" communities of New York, Jerusalem, and elsewhere.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15. Additional sections at different times may be added as needed.
Prerequisite: Yiddish Bb or permission of the instructor.

[Yiddish Cb. Advanced Yiddish II]
Catalog Number: 8968 Enrollment: To enroll, please contact the instructor.
Ruth R. Wisse and staff
Half course (spring term). M., W., 1–2:30. EXAM GROUP: 6, 7
Continuation of Yiddish Ca.
Note: Expected to be given in 2014–15.
Prerequisite: Yiddish Ca or permission of the instructor.

Yiddish 130. Three Centers of Yiddish Culture - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 95148
Ruth R. Wisse and Eitan Lev Kensky
Half course (fall term). Tu., 2–4, plus a section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
In 1926, the Yiddish novelist Dovid Bergelson announced the "three centers" of Yiddish literature and culture: New York, Warsaw and Moscow. Using Bergelson’s essay as a window on Yiddish modernism, this class looks at the relationship between language, city, and state. We will ask, what distinguished Yiddish culture in one place from another? Did writers see themselves at home or in exile? How did politics affect the Yiddish writer? And what should we make of the other Yiddish centers, Vilna, Kiev, even Berlin?
Note: This class is intended for students with a reading knowledge of Yiddish, though all texts will be available in English translation. Class discussion will be in English. There will be an extra section for Yiddish readers.

Primarily for Graduates

Yiddish 200r. Modern Yiddish Literature: Seminar
Catalog Number: 4263
Ruth R. Wisse
Half course (fall term). Tu., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 16, 17
An examination of 20th century Yiddish literature from between the world wars, emphasizing the transition from a religiously centered to a largely secular outlook. Materials will be read in Yiddish and the class will be conducted in English.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3719.
Prerequisite: Reading knowledge of Yiddish required.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Yiddish 300. Yiddish Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 7833
Ruth R. Wisse 3177