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Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

Faculty of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

Dalia Abo Haggar, Preceptor in Arabic
Irit Aharony, Senior Preceptor in Modern Hebrew
Sami Mohmoud Alkyam, Preceptor in Arabic
Ali S. Asani, Professor of Indo-Muslim and Islamic Religion and Cultures
Gojko Barjamovic, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Nour Barmada abida, Preceptor in Arabic
Nicholas Boylston, Preceptor in Persian
Shaye J.D. Cohen, Nathan Littauer Professor of Hebrew Literature and Philosophy
Khaled El-Rouayheb, Professor of Islamic Intellectual History
William Albert Graham, Murray A. Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor (on leave spring term)
William E. Granara, Professor of the Practice of Arabic on the Gordon Gray Endowment, and Director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies
Rachel L. Greenblatt, Associate Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Jay M. Harris, Dean of Undergraduate Education, and Harry Austryn Wolfson Professor of Jewish Studies
Feryal Hijazi, Preceptor in Arabic
Robert Homsher, College Fellow in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Susan M. Kahn, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Ousmane Kane, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations (FAS), Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Professor of Contemporary Islamic Religion and Society (Divinity School)
Eitan Lev Kensky, Preceptor in Yiddish
Chad Kia, Lecturer on Persian Literature and Culture
Nevenka Korica, Senior Preceptor in Arabic
Luke Anthony Leafgren, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Peter Machinist, Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages
Hisham Mahmoud, Preceptor in Modern Arabic
Peter Der Manuelian, Philip J. King Professor of Egyptology
James R. Russell, Mashtots Professor of Armenian Studies (on leave spring term)
Richard J. Saley, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
P. Oktor Skjaervo, Aga Khan Professor of Iranian (on leave fall term)
Jonah C. Steinberg, Lecturer on Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Piotr Steinkeller, Professor of Assyriology
Himmet Taskomur, Preceptor in Ottoman and Modern Turkish
Malika Zeghal, Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Professor in Contemporary Islamic Thought and Life

Other Faculty Offering Instruction in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

Affiliates of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

P. Oktor Skjaervo, Aga Khan Professor of Iranian (on leave fall term)

The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations introduces students to the ancient and modern peoples, languages, cultures, and societies of the Near and Middle East. Loosely defined as stretching from Morocco in the west to Iran and Afghanistan in the east, the region is home of the world’s great religions and civilizations. Historically, the influence of its languages, literatures and cultures has extended to Central, East and Southeast Asia, sub-saharan Africa, Europe and North America. Thus, the study of the Near and Middle East is an important area of academic inquiry on account of its political, economic and cultural significance on the international stage.

Given the diversity of the course offerings, the catalog chapter is organized in the following categories, but many courses touch on more than one area. For example, one will find courses about the Bible under ‘The Middle East in Antiquity’, ‘Jewish Studies’, and also ‘Hebrew Literature and History’. The chapter categories are as follows:
     Near Eastern Civilizations - tutorials for undergraduates, and directed study for graduate students
     The Middle East in Antiquity - Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies; Armenian Studies
     Histories and Cultures of Muslim Societies - Islamic Civilizations
     Jewish Studies
     Modern Middle Eastern Studies - The Modern Middle East
     Languages and Literatures - Akkadian; Arabic; Aramaic; Armenian; Egyptian; Hebrew Language (Classical and Modern); Hebrew Literature and History; Iranian; Persian; Semitic Philology; Sumerian; Turkish; Yiddish

Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations

Near Eastern Civilizations

Primarily for Undergraduates

*Near Eastern Civilizations 91r. Supervised Reading and Research
Catalog Number: 1132
Khaled El-Rouayheb and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Tutorial supervision of research in subjects not treated in regular courses.

*Near Eastern Civilizations 97r. Group Tutorial—Sophomore Year
Catalog Number: 0167
James R. Russell and members of the Department
Half course (fall term). M., 3:30–5:30. EXAM GROUP: 6
An introduction to the cultures and literatures of the Near East in ancient, classical, and modern times, emphasizing major themes and problems that cut across individual cultures and historical periods.

*Near Eastern Civilizations 98r. Tutorial — Junior Year
Catalog Number: 2612
Khaled El-Rouayheb and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Designed for juniors concentrating in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

*Near Eastern Civilizations 99r. Tutorial — Senior Year
Catalog Number: 6623
Khaled El-Rouayheb and members of the Department
Full course. Hours to be arranged.
Note: Designed for seniors concentrating in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

Cross-listed courses

[Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding 54 (formerly Culture and Belief 12). For the Love of God and His Prophet: Religion, Literature, and the Arts in Muslim Cultures]
Culture and Belief 19. Understanding Islam and Contemporary Muslim Societies
*Freshman Seminar 37y. Muslim Voices in Contemporary World Literatures

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Near Eastern Civilizations 300. Direction of Master’s Thesis
Catalog Number: 2448
Ali S. Asani 7739, William E. Granara 1054, Susan M. Kahn 4833, Chad Kia 2852, Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, Peter Der Manuelian 4279, Roy Mottahedeh 1454 (on leave spring term), and Malika Zeghal 6744

*Near Eastern Civilizations 390. Direction of Doctoral Dissertations
Catalog Number: 3041
Ali S. Asani 7739, Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, William Albert Graham 4156 (on leave spring term), William E. Granara 1054, Jay M. Harris 2266, Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, Peter Machinist 2812, Peter Der Manuelian 4279, James R. Russell 3411 (on leave spring term), P. Oktor Skjaervo 2869 (on leave fall term), Piotr Steinkeller 7337, and Malika Zeghal 6744

The Middle East in Antiquity

Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies

See also below under Akkadian and Sumerian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Semitic Philology.

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-listed Courses

[Culture and Belief 13. The Contested Bible: The Sacred-Secular Dance]
Culture and Belief 23. From the Hebrew Bible to Judaism, From the Old Testament to Christianity
Culture and Belief 48. God, Justice, and the Book of Job
Societies of the World 38. Pyramid Schemes: The Archaeological History of Ancient Egypt

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Ancient Near East 100. History of the Ancient Near East
Catalog Number: 0702
Gojko Barjamovic
Half course (fall term). M., W., at 2. EXAM GROUP: 7
This course provides an overview of the history of the ancient Near East, with a focus on ancient Mesopotamia. It begins with the advent of writing in the late fourth millennium BCE and ends with the fall of Babylon to Cyrus the Great, in 539 BCE. The course combines archaeological, art historical, and textual data to explore the extraordinarily rich history of this region.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1115.

Ancient Near East 102. Introduction to Mesopotamian Religion
Catalog Number: 0486
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 15
A survey of the history and major concerns of ancient Mesopotamian religion from prehistoric times down to the reign of Alexander the Great. Among the topics treated are the key figures of the Sumero-Babylonian pantheon, the major mythological compositions (read in translation), personal religion, cosmogonies and theogonies, magic and divination, Mesopotamian temples, and cult and ritual. The course makes rich use of ancient iconography.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3661.

Ancient Near East 103. Ancient Lives
Catalog Number: 65695
Gojko Barjamovic
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 15
This course will present and question a number of fundamental elements of human society, using themes from ancient history to explore ways of thinking about civilization and culture. Our focus is the earliest human ’civilization’ - Mesopotamia c. 3400-100 BC - which corresponds to parts of modern-day Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Particular to the study of this early period of human history is the fact that writing was first developed here in the form of cuneiform inscriptions on clay. Because clay survives well in the ground, ancient Mesopotamia is one of the most densely documented historical periods prior to early modern times. Also, unlike, say, Greek and Roman manuscripts, which mostly exist as copies that have been passed down through tradition, virtually all of sources for the ancient Near East survive directly as documentary records that have remained in the ground since their time of use. This includes peoples’ private letters, grocery lists, medical bills, philosophical treaties, school essays, proverbs, and virtually any other imaginable textual genre. The wealth, scope and incredible chronological extent of the Mesopotamian sources allow us to raise a number of fundamental questions about what it means to be human. What is nature and what is culture? What are the roots of economy and the concept of private ownership? Why do we need belief systems (religion, philosophy, etc.) and how do these develop? Is the concept of love universal? How about childhood? Race? Gender? - What is universal and what is context-specific? How is our current situation a product of the past? How did ancient societies perceive themselves and the world that surrounded them? What are the key foundations for our current condition, and what can we learn from ancient societies?

[Ancient Near East 111. Law in the World of the Bible]
Catalog Number: 6397
Peter Machinist
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
An examination of what law was and how it operated in ancient Israel through its primary expression in the Hebrew Bible. Attention to the wider contexts of law in the ancient Near East, especially Mesopotamia, in which biblical law originated, and to the legacy of biblical law in the subsequent traditions of early Judaism.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1129.

Ancient Near East 113. Environmental Archaeology of the Ancient Near East - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 91925
Robert Homsher
Half course (spring term). Th., 2–4, with occasional labs to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 11
This course deals with major changes in climate and environment affecting humans, and the various ways in which Near Eastern societies have endured, mastered, or destroyed themselves, from an ecological perspective. Importance is placed on a diachronic outlook on dynamic human-environment interactions as understood through archaeology, particularly with reference to the challenge of sustainability in the so-called Anthropocene. A major focus of this course will be on case studies from around the eastern Mediterranean and greater Near East during the Holocene, but particularly dealing with examples from the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, Syria, southern Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan). Topics will cover different types of environments and geological processes found in the Near East, practical sampling and analytical procedures, and major categories of anthropological interpretation.
Note: Ancient Near East 115 and/or Anthropology 1010 are helpful, but certainly not essential, as background.

Ancient Near East 115. Archaeology of the Levant
Catalog Number: 2813
Robert Homsher
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 15
This course follows human societies in the region of the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, Syria, southern Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan) from the earliest sedentary communities through the Iron Age. This extensive survey through time focuses on current archaeological research, emphasizing major aspects of: geography and chronology, art and architecture, modes of social organization, explanations for major socio-cultural changes, social identity, domestic life, religious expression, and issues of gender. Societies and areas under investigation include: the Canaanites, Amorites, Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, Judah, Aram, the Neo-Hittites, Ammon, Moab, Edom, and Arabia.
Note: Enrolled students will have the opportunity to participate in a one-week tour led by the instructor of sites in Israel spanning these chronological periods in summer 2015.

Ancient Near East 117. Biblical Archaeology
Catalog Number: 1371
Robert Homsher
Half course (fall term). M., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7
This course combines biblical historiography and archaeology to critically evaluate many of the debatable incongruities between text and material evidence. Various periods of biblical history will be studied within their greater Near Eastern and Eastern Mediterranean context, looking specifically at results of archaeological excavations and evidence from extra-biblical textual sources. Beginning with the composition of biblical text and biblical chronology, readings and lectures will then navigate through biblical theories and archaeological evidence from the primordial creation stories until post-exilic Second Temple Judaism. Additionally, the history of "biblical archaeology" will be traced until the present day, especially including portrayals in popular media, while highlighting the good, the bad, and the very ugly.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1422.

Ancient Near East 120. Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 17184
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 10–11:30. EXAM GROUP: 12
A survey of the Hebrew Scriptures as viewed in their historical and cultural setting in the ancient Near East and as interpreted by modern scholarship, with attention to this literature as an expression of the religious thought of Israel and one of the formative influences on Western civilization.
Note: May not be taken for credit if the student has taken ANE 120a or ANE 120b for credit. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1101.

[Ancient Near East 120a. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament 1: Pentateuch and Former Prophets]
Catalog Number: 6544
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 10–11:30.
A critical introduction to the literature and theology of the Hebrew Bible, considered in light of the historical contexts of its formation and the interpretive contexts of its reception within Judaism and Christianity. The course, the first part of a divisible, year-long sequence, will focus on the major biblical narrative traditions, the Pentateuch and Former Prophets.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1102.

[Ancient Near East 120b. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament 2: Latter Prophets and Writings]
Catalog Number: 22968
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 10-11:30, and a section to be arranged.
A critical introduction to the literature and theology of the Hebrew Bible, considered in light of the historical contexts of its formation and the interpretive contexts of its reception within Judaism and Christianity. The course, the second part of a divisible, year-long sequence, will focus on the Latter Prophets and the Writings.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1103.

Ancient Near East 126. History of the Religion of Ancient Israel
Catalog Number: 1672
Peter Machinist
Half course (fall term). M., W., (F.), at 10, and a section episodically to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 5
The study of ancient Israelite religion and culture in comparative historical context. Topics examined include conceptions of divinity, prophecy, law, kingship, and cult. Through such topics the aim is to see how Israel related to other cultures of the ancient Near East and, thus, of what value the study of the other cultures has in understanding the character of Israelite religion itself.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1110.

[Ancient Near East 131. Readings in the Septuagint]
Catalog Number: 3661
Richard J. Saley
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., at 12.
This course aims to increase facility with Septuagint Greek by reading representative prose portions of the Septuagint and studying the peculiarities of the grammar inductively. The basics of Hellenistic Greek will be reviewed as necessary.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4215.
Prerequisite: One year of Greek.

Ancient Near East 132. Ancient Jewish Wisdom Literature
Catalog Number: 9522
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 15
A close critical reading and interpretation of works thought to derive from the Wisdom tradition of ancient Israel, through the Second Temple period. The workings of the world and the ways of God as they appear in works such as Proverbs, Job, Qohelet, Ben Sira, some Psalms, the Wisdom of Solomon, Fourth Maccabees, and Pseudo-Phocylides as well as narratives about such figures as Joseph, Esther, and Daniel. Egyptian and Mesopotamian antecedents and parallels briefly considered. Emphasis on matters of worldview and literary form.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1416.
Prerequisite: Ancient Near East 120 or an equivalent introduction to the historical-critical study of the Hebrew Bible.

Ancient Near East 134. Genesis: Narrative Artistry and Theological Meanings
Catalog Number: 3291
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 15
A close critical reading in English of the book of Genesis with an eye both to the storytellers’ techniques and to the moral and theological dimensions of the text. Emphasis will be given to literary and religious rather than historical and editorial issues.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1417.

Ancient Near East 136. Sibling Rivalries: Israel and the Other in the Hebrew Bible - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 57242 Enrollment: Limited to 20.
Joel Kaminsky (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 11
This course will provide an in-depth examination of the biblical idea of divine election, that is. the notion that God specially favors certain individuals and nations, a notion that sits at the heart of ancient Israel’s theological self-understanding. Beginning with the narratives of sibling rivalry in Genesis and then turning to other relevant texts from the Hebrew Bible (all read in English), as well as on occasion from the Apocrypha, the New Testament and rabbinic literature, we shall explore how the Hebrew Bible conceives of election, what it entails for those chosen, and what the Hebrew Bible’s election theology implies about the three-way relationship among God, Israel, and the nations of the world, and conclude by surveying how early Christianity and rabbinic Judaism each appropriated ancient Israel’s election theology in unique but related ways.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1790.

Ancient Near East 142. The Bible Uncensored: Journeys into Texts Dark and Daring from the Hebrew Bible - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 81386
Peter Machinist
Half course (spring term). M., W., (F.), at 11, plus periodic discussion sections. EXAM GROUP: 14
Not your usual introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Through a close study of biblical texts (in translation) that are at once strange, shocking, raw, even bawdy, this course aims to reveal the variety and excitement of biblical literature and the ancient Israel that lies behind it.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1828.

Ancient Near East 155r. Ancient Mesopotamia: Archaeology and Texts
Catalog Number: 11874
Piotr Steinkeller and Jason A. Ur
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Ancient Mesopotamia was the world’s first literate urban civilization. This class will examine the origins and evolution of cities, temples, and government from two complementary perspectives: the archaeological record and cuneiform inscriptions in translation. Activities will include visits to museum collections (Peabody, Semitic Museum, Boston MFA), hands-on experience with creating cuneiform tablets, and virtual tours of southern Iraq using satellite imagery.

[Ancient Near East 165. The Chosen People]
Catalog Number: 16825
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10.
A consideration of the concept of the biblical motif of divine choice of individuals and groups, with close reading of representative texts in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. Knowledge of Hebrew not required.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1120.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Hebrew Bible/Old Testament or the equivalent.

Cross-listed Courses

Primarily for Graduates

Ancient Near East 210. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible: Seminar
Catalog Number: 5492
Richard J. Saley
Half course (fall term). Tu., 3–6. EXAM GROUP: 2
This course focuses on the art of recovering the text of the Hebrew Bible using Hebrew and Greek manuscripts as well as other early textual witnesses.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1819.
Prerequisite: At least two years of Hebrew and one year of Greek; some knowledge of Aramaic, Latin, and Syriac is helpful but not required.

[Ancient Near East 225. The Greek Bible in History and Theology: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 2475
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., 4–6.
An exploration of social, historical, interpretive, and theological issues associated with the so-called Septuagint and its complex relationship to early Judaism and Christianity. Emphases include origins, eschatology, messianism, halakhah, New Testament backgrounds, and biblical theology.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1301.
Prerequisite: Basic reading knowledge of Greek and Hebrew.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Ancient Near East 310. Reading and Research in Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology
Catalog Number: 4264
Members of the Department

*Ancient Near East 320. Reading and Research in Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization
Catalog Number: 5678
Peter Machinist 2812 and Piotr Steinkeller 7337

*Ancient Near East 330. Reading and Research in Biblical Studies
Catalog Number: 1524
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, Peter Machinist 2812, and D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School) 6111

Armenian Studies

See also below under Armenian.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Armenian Studies 100. Armenian Epic]
Catalog Number: 2576
James R. Russell
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Reading in translation of The Wild Men of Sasun, with analysis of native historical and mythological sources, and thematic comparison to epic poetry of the neighboring Iranians (Ossetic Narts, Persian Shah-nameh, Kurdish epic songs), Turks (Dede Korkut), and Greeks (Digenes Akrites).
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Armenian Studies 102. Introduction to Armenian Civilization]
Catalog Number: 50965
James R. Russell
Half course (fall term). Th., 2–4.
A survey of the history and culture of the Armenian people from earliest times to the Genocide and Soviet era.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Armenian Studies 105. Survey of 19th and 20th Century Armenian Poetry: From Romantics to Revolutionaries
Catalog Number: 3496
James R. Russell
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
A survey of the great innovators and visionaries: Bedros Tourian, Misak Medzarents, Yeghia Demirjibashian, Daniel Varouzhan, Siamanto, Vahan Teryan, Yeghishe Charents, and their English, Russian, and French colleagues and translators. The course spans the fateful epoch from the mid-19th century to the aftermath of the Russian Revolution.
Note: Knowledge of Armenian preferred but not required.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Armenian Studies 300. Reading and Research in Armenian Studies
Catalog Number: 1740
James R. Russell 3411 (on leave spring term)
Half course (fall term). .

Early Iranian Civilizations

For Undergraduates and Graduates

See also below under Arabic, Aramaic, and Iranian.

Primarily for Graduates

[Iranian 282a. Ancient Iranian Religions: Zoroastrianism]
Catalog Number: 22326
James R. Russell
Half course (spring term). F., 3–5.
An introduction to the teachings of the Prophet Zarathushtra and the beliefs and practices of his followers, from the Achaemenid Persians, Parthian Arsacids, and Persian Sasanians to the Parsis of India, based on translated primary sources and secondary researches.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Histories and Cultures of Muslim Societies

See also below under Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. Refer also to the Urdu section of the Department of South Asian Studies.

Islamic Civilizations

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-listed Courses

[Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding 54 (formerly Culture and Belief 12). For the Love of God and His Prophet: Religion, Literature, and the Arts in Muslim Cultures]
Culture and Belief 19. Understanding Islam and Contemporary Muslim Societies
[Culture and Belief 41. Gender, Islam, and Nation in the Middle East and North Africa]
*Freshman Seminar 37y. Muslim Voices in Contemporary World Literatures
Religion 13. Scriptures and Classics

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Islamic Civilizations 100. Supervised Reading and Research in Islamic Studies
Catalog Number: 94225
Khaled El-Rouayheb (fall term) and Ali S. Asani (spring term) and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
A course of supervised research in subjects related to the study of Islam and Muslim societies not treated in regular courses.

[Islamic Civilizations 145a. Introduction to Islamic Philosophy and Theology: Formative and Classical Periods (8th to 17th C.)]
Catalog Number: 0292
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). Th., 3-5, and a weekly section to be arranged.
An introductory survey of the development of Islamic theology and philosophy. We will examine and discuss some of the central problems that were much debated through the centuries, such as: the relationship between philosophy and faith; whether humans possess free will; how to understand apparently anthropomorphic expressions in Scripture; whether acts are good because God commands them or God commands them because they are good; and proofs for the existence of God.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered alternate years with Islamic Civilizations 145b. Though the two courses can be taken in either order, 145a covers the 8th-17th centuries and 145b covers the 19th-20th centuries. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3602.

[Islamic Civilizations 145b. Introduction to Islamic Philosophy and Theology: The Modern Period (19th and 20th centuries)]
Catalog Number: 12106
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). Th., 3–5, and a weekly section to be arranged.
The course is a continuation of Islamic Civilizations 145a but may be taken independently. It explores the thought of some of the major Islamic philosophers and theologians in the 19th and 20th centuries: Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad Iqbal, Said Nursi, Abu l-Ala Maududi, Sayyid Qutb, Ali Shariati, Murtaza Mutahheri and Mohammed Arkoun.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered alternate years with Islamic Civilizations 145a. Though the two courses can be taken in either order, 145a covers the 8th-17th centuries and 145b covers the 19th-20th centuries. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3602b.

Islamic Civilizations 146. al-Ghazali: Theologian and Mystic
Catalog Number: 9561
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). Th., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 2
Al-Ghazali (d.1111) is generally recognized to be one of the most influential of all Muslim religious thinkers. A prominent theologian and jurist, he experienced a spiritual crisis at the height of his career, and as a consequence explored mysticism (Sufism) and worked out a powerful synthesis between respect for the externals of the Islamic religion and the mystics’ stress on the interior life. In this course, we will look in particular at his account of his spiritual crisis; his critical engagement with the Islamic Philosophers; and some of the more mystical works that he wrote toward the end of his life, including his theodicy, his meditations on the Qur’anic dictum that "God is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth", and select chapters from his great summa "The Revival of the Religious Sciences". All readings will be in English.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3599.
Prerequisite: No knowledge of Arabic required.

*Islamic Civilizations 170. Islam, Modernity and Politics
Catalog Number: 55905 Enrollment: Limited to 18.
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (fall term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7
The aim of this seminar is to study the evolution of Islamic thought and political practices in Muslim societies from the 19th to the early 21st centuries. Attention will be devoted to the patterns of interaction between the Muslim World and the West because it is our assumption that these patterns contribute to influence ideological formations and modes of religious/political mobilizations in the Muslim World. By the end of the eighteenth century, much of the Muslim World was in "decline" whereas European imperial powers, mainly France and Great Britain, were on the rise. The course will explore the response of Muslim societies and intellectuals to the rise of European prominence. The major 19th century reformist movements that appeared in the Muslim World will be discussed, ranging from movements advocating mild reform to those rejecting all influence of "Western civilization" and advocating a return to the Tradition of Muhammad. In the twentieth century, virtually all the Muslim World came under European colonial domination. During colonial rule and after, the Muslim world experienced major transformations which affected the nature and administration of law, politics and society. It is in this context, that the new Islamic revival that some have called "Islamism" was articulated as an alternative to Westernization. The course will address the rise of contemporary "Islamism," as an alternative to Western domination and modernization/Westernization. The major theorists of political Islam as well as the different trajectories of "Islamism" in diverse Muslim societies will be covered. The impact of political Islam in the West will also be addressed. The final part of the course will assess the trajectories of political Islam and address the ongoing debates on post-Islamism, secularism and modernity.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3368.

*Islamic Civilizations 171. Religion and Political Violence in North Africa and the Sahel - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 13897 Enrollment: Limited to 18.
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (fall term). W., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7
Unknown in Africa before the jihad against the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan, suicide bombing has become common place in the 21st century. From Algeria to Somalia through Libya, Mali and Nigeria, so- called Salafi jihadis have recruited and trained tens of thousands of combatants. Through cigarette and narcotic trafficking, hostage taking for ransom, and bank hold ups, they have procured huge financial resources, sophisticated weapons, and now constitute a serious security challenge not only to many countries of North Africa and the Sahel but also to their Western allies. This conference course will address the spread of jihadi groups in Muslim Africa (North Africa and the Sahel) after the cold war. The first part of the course will address the divergent theoretical interpretations of terrorism and address in particular the following questions: Is it greed that sustains civil wars or grievance? Does the root of terror lie in culture or politics? Is there any evidence that civilizations clashed after the cold war? The second part of the course will focus on select transnational Islamist movements, situated both in their local context of nation building and their larger regional contexts. Case studies will include Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb in North Africa and the Sahel, the Harakat al-shabab al-mujahidin in the Horn of Africa, the Boko Haram in the Lake Chad region and the Gama’at islamiyya in Egypt and beyond.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3371.

*Islamic Civilizations 172. Knowledge and Authority in Muslim Societies - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 64447 Enrollment: Limited to 20.
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (spring term). F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 18
This seminar will investigate the ways in which the production of knowledge affects the construction of authority in the Islamic world. It will look at how various forms of religious knowledge are acquired, legitimated, transmitted and/or contested within Muslim communities. Several types of knowledge will be: exoteric knowledge based on the Koran and other Islamic sciences, mystical knowledge as developed by the Sufis, and talismanic knowledge. Ulama trained in the exoteric sciences derived their authority from the conventional knowledge of the Koran, and religious sciences. Sufi masters derived theirs from their purported ability to explain the hidden meanings of the Koran, to provide spiritual training and guide the disciple in the path toward spiritual fulfillment. Finally, the credibility of talisman makers rested largely on their ability to use religious texts for purposes such as healing and bringing luck. Of course, the boundaries between these figures of authority are not rigid and some of them may engage in the activities of the other. The first part of the seminar will focus on pre-colonial Muslim societies and the second part on the impact of Western hegemony on the transmission of knowledge and construction of authority in the postcolonial Islamic world. Seminar participants will compare and contrast historical and contemporary experiences of transmission of knowledge and production of authority in various parts of the World of Islam and investigate the historical linkages between these regions.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3370.

[*Islamic Civilizations 174. Migration and Religion in Comparative Perspective] - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 17296 Enrollment: Limited to 20.
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (fall term). F., 2–4.
The seminar will explore two important issues in relation to mobility and religion. The first is how geographic mobility affects the faith and religious practices of diasporas, and the second how migration influences the development of religion in the sending and receiving countries of immigrants? After a critical evaluation of the concept of religion, seminar participants will look at pre-modern types of migration (forced and voluntary) and different religious traditions, and analyze the social and personal transformations provoked by migration. We will explore in particular theoretical perspectives on diasporas and look at the religious experience of Jews in Africa. We will also discuss various expressions of African religions in the new world, including Islam in Antebellum America, and Afro-American Religions, as well as the Islamic pilgrimage tradition in West Africa and its impact on state formation in pre-colonial Africa. The second part of the seminar will be focused on Muslim globalizations. Increasing numbers of labor migrants, students and refugees from Muslim countries have settled in Western Europe and North America in the last three decades. Their numbers are estimated at some 40 million in the early twenty-first century, an unparalleled presence in history. While Western societies are moving away from organized religion, Muslim immigrant communities, by striving to carve a niche in Western Societies, have followed the opposite direction. Although most Western societies recognize the freedom of worship, the multiplication of Muslim institutions (such as mosques, shops, restaurants, schools, cultural centers, newspapers, and charities) has created growing anxiety in the secularizing Western societies. We will look at how Muslim intellectuals mediate the integration of Muslim through the reinterpretation of Islamic theology, as well as how Western states grapple with the issue of Muslim integration in the post-September 11th context of War on Terror.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3359.

Islamic Civilizations 175. Islam in African History
Catalog Number: 15502
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., at 1. EXAM GROUP: 1
As of 2009 according to the Pew Charitable Trust Survey of the Global Muslim population, 241 million Muslims lived south of the Sahara. This is about 15 percent of the Muslim global population. The course is designed to provide an understanding of the spread of Islam and the formation and transformation of Muslim societies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The course is organized in two parts. The first part of the course will focus on the history of Islamization of Africa, and topics will include the ways in which Islam came to Africa, the relationships of Islam to trade, the growth of literacy in Arabic and Ajami, the rise of clerical classes and their contribution to State formation in the pre-colonial period. The second part of the course will address Muslim responses to European colonial domination, and the varieties of Islamic expressions in the post-independence period (rise of Islamist, Shiite and Salafi jihadi movements) and Muslim globalization. In addition to the lectures, the course will include film showing, and two discussion sections: one in English and one in Arabic.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3365.

[Islamic Civilizations 176. Islam in Modern West Africa]
Catalog Number: 59889 Enrollment: Limited to 30.
Ousmane Oumar Kane
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., at 1, plus one hour to be arranged.
At the beginning of European colonial rule in the early 20th century, less than a half of the West African population was Muslim. By independence from European colonial rule in the early 1960s, close to 90 percent of many West African countries have been Islamized. More people converted to Islam during the six decades of European colonial rule than in the preceding thousand year of slow Islamization. The aim of this lecture course is to analyze contemporary West African Muslim societies with particular reference to the twenty and twenty first centuries. This course will look at how colonialism created a favorable ground for the spread of Islam. It will also address the main institutions and movements of modern Islam in West Africa as well as the postcolonial transformations in education, gender, the arts, interfaith relations etc. In addition to the discussion section in English, this lecture course will also offer a section in Arabic in which participants will be initiated to the intellectual production of Muslim intellectuals in Africa.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3366.

Islamic Civilizations 178 (formerly *Religion 1820). Muslim Societies in South Asia: Religion, Culture, and Identity
Catalog Number: 2741
Ali S. Asani
Half course (fall term). Th., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 8
South Asia (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) is home to the largest concentration of Muslims in the world. This course introduces students to a variety of issues that have characterized the development and evolution of South Asian Muslim communities. While the course will briefly survey the historical development of Islamic and Muslim institutions in the region, its central focus will be the formation of identity - as expressed through language, literature, and the arts - among South Asian Muslim communities. The issues that influence these identities will be considered with regard to the constantly evolving religious and political contexts of South Asia. Special attention will be given to recent attempts to redefine Muslim religious identities through reform and revivalist movements as well as state policies of Islamization. We will look at the impact of these policies on issues such as the status of Muslim women, relations between Muslim and non-Muslims and the growth of sectarian tensions between Muslim groups. The course is appropriate for those who wish to acquire a bird’s-eye view of the Islamic tradition in South Asia, as well as those interested in exploring some of the issues confronting Muslim populations in contemporary times.
Note: This course, when taken for a letter grade, meets the General Education requirement for either Culture and Belief or Societies of the World, but not both. This course fulfills the requirement that one of the eight General Education courses also engage substantially with Study of the Past. Offered jointly with Divinity School as 3625.

[Islamic Civilizations 183. Reform and Revival in Modern Islam, 19th -20th centuries]
Catalog Number: 15829
Malika Zeghal
Half course (spring term). W., 1–3.
This course will shed light on the historical transformation of the internal religious reforms of Islam in the 18th and 19th century into politicized and/or fundamentalist versions of Islam in the 20th century.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with Divinity School as HDS 3362.

Islamic Civilizations 185. Ulama, Religious Institutions, and Islamic Education in the Middle East
Catalog Number: 73552
Malika Zeghal
Half course (spring term). Tu., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
Examines the recent historiography and sociology of religious education and religious scholars (’ulama) in the Muslim world. (19th-20th centuries).

Cross-listed Courses

History 1877 (formerly *History 1977a). History of Middle East, 600-1055
[History 1878b. Ottoman State and Society II (1550-1920)]
[History of Art and Architecture 128. Topics in Arabic Art and Culture: The Medieval Mediterranean]
History of Science 108. Bodies, Sexualities, and Medicine in the Medieval Middle East
[History of Science 111. Two Scientific Revolutions: From the Classical Age of Islamic Sciences to the Scientific World of Early Modern Europe]
[History of Science 113. Crusades, Plagues and Hospitals: Medicine and Society in the Islamic Middle Ages]
Religion 1802. Introduction to Islamic Mysticism: The Sufi Tradition
[Religion 1816. Ismaili History and Thought]
Religion 1832. Political Islam in the 20th and 21st Centuries

Primarily for Graduates

Islamic Civilizations 210. Introduction to Islamic Law
Catalog Number: 56941 Enrollment: Limited to 30.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Th., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 14
This lecture course provides an oversight over the history of Muslim Law, the fiqh, from the 8th to the 19th century. This system of legal and ethical norms is conceived as the continuous interpretation of the shari’a, the revealed principles and norms of law and ethics. In the "branches of the fiqh" (furū‘ al-fiqh) this interpretation, since the eighth century, takes the form of the production of legal and ethical norms. From the tenth century on, the texts of the methodology of fiqh (uṣūl al-fiqh) attempt to create the norms for norm production. We will discuss the norms and the methodology of the law as well as the institutions that allowed it to spread over the whole of the Muslim World. The course will consistently focus on the methods through which changes in genres of legal literature, methods, institutions and norms were introduced and recognized during different periods of the fiqh’s development. Special attention will be given to the changes that the system underwent from the 19th to the 21st century.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3621.

[*Islamic Civilizations 211. The Jurisprudence of the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) of Egypt between 2011 and 2014: Aspects of Constitutional Doctrine] - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 87128 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., 2–4.
The aim of this seminar is to study the SCC’s role in the transition processes between the presidencies of Nasser and Mubarak, on the one hand, the presidencies of Mubarak to Mursi and from Mursi to the situation of 2014. Under all these regimes the SCC ’s task is to guarantee the state’s abidance by its constitutional obligations in the field of legal procedure and democratic principles. In a first step we will compare the tasks assigned to the highest courts of the different branches of the judiciary in Egypt and the way in which the SCC is integrated into this hierarchy of this courts. In a second step we will study the way in which the SCC in the past acted as guarantor of constitutional norms with special consideration of Human Rights, the interpretation of Islamic Law as a constitutional source of national legislation and the state’s prerogative of ruling under rules of emergence. Finally, we will focus on the role of the SCC as actor in the transition from the Mubarak to the Mursi presidency and from the Mursi regime to the regime under the control of the military that came into existence between July 2013 and February 2014. For the first and the second part we will mainly rely on the texts of the constitutions of 1971 and 1980 and on secondary literature on the court’s jurisprudence. The third part will mainly be based on the texts of the constitutions of 2012 and 2014, on the political calendar of the years 2011-2014 and on BJ’s translations of some of the most important decisions of the SCC during the 2011-2014 period and the analysis of their function in the transition process.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3494.

[*Islamic Civilizations 213. Theological and Legal Conceptions of Human Nature in Islam] - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 46765 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 4–6.
Concepts of human nature are systematically developed in early Islamic theology. By contrast, references to human nature in the texts of the applied law (furū‘ al-fiqh) are mostly passing remarks used to justify a particular norm but rarely systematized and generalized. In the methodology of the law (usūl al-fiqh) references to the legal personality (dhimma) provide a bridge between the discussions on human nature in theology and the texts of the applied law. For a discussion of the theological concepts of nature the seminar will rely on the work of Josef van Ess and Bernard Weiss. BJ will provide a selection of texts on human nature translated from Arabic treatises on the applied law and the methodology of law written by authors of different law schools between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries.The purpose of the seminar is to understand in how far elements of natural law can be found in the legal and theological discussions of Islam from the 8th to the 12th century. We will discuss the secondary literature on natural law in Islam, published over the last decade and see, in how far it contains material that could help us to answer this question and how far it integrates the Muslim discussion of human nature.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3487.

*Islamic Civilizations 214. Concepts of Innovation (tajdīd) in Classical Islam (9th-12th centuries) - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 27156 Enrollment: Limited to 10.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 6
In the secondary literature Muslim law and theology of the Middle Period of Islam are widely characterized as tradition-bound and oriented towards the past. Such an assessment can, in fact, be justified through references to many of the texts of both disciplines. But it ignores that important jurists and theologians in 11th- and 12th century Baghdad and elsewhere adopted a different approach to the tasks of their disciplines, seeing innovation (tajdīd) as the characteristic of Muslim culture, law, and theology. In this seminar we will read (in Arabic or in the translations by BJ) philosophical, legal, and philological texts that define language, law, social and cultural practices as continuing processes of innovation. The philological debate on the divine or human "Instituting of language" (waḍ‘ al-lugha) that was led from the 9th to the 16th century served as a general point of reference for these debates. It will also be the starting point of our discussions. This discussion has to be related to the translation movement that - from the 8th to the 10th century - helped to integrate natural sciences and philosophy into Islamic culture and religion. We will read Dimitri Gutas’ history of this translation movement. In the second half of the seminar, we will focus on the fields to which scholars of the eleventh and twelfth centuries apply their concept of innovation and the way in which the scholarly and political milieu reacted to this conceptualization.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3492.

[*Islamic Civilizations 217. The Construction of Gendered Spheres in Islamic Law: Ritual, Family, Kinship, Court Procedures] - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 34925 Enrollment: Limited to 8.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Th., 4–6.
From the eighth century on, the construction of gendered spheres in the fiqh assigns to women the capacity to dominate and control certain spheres, such as the sphere of reproduction, the education of children through the first years of their life, some schools of law also assign only to women the right to report to courts and the outer world on acts and persons they have seen in the gendered spheres dominated by women. The seminar will try to establish a full list of such gendered spheres under feminine control. The reasons by which such gendered spheres are justified by the jurists are many: the women’s intimacy has to be protected against the intrusion of the male gaze and touching that may stir the man’s and the woman’s sexual desire for each other. The seminar will discuss the growing list of reasons for additional veiling and seclusion in the writings of different schools of Sunni law. At the same time, an inverse development also takes place. The number of exceptional situations that require the uncovering of free (and slave) women in the presence of male strangers is constantly growing. Such situations as medical therapy or identification before a court require and justify the unveiling of women in the presence of strangers. As a result, a particular categorie of of women of high standing is developed who are exempt from these exceptions. We will try to follow the development of the casuistry on veiling and unveiling and to find a satisfying explanation for the many contradictions that characterize the arguments for veiling as developed in the legal literature of the classical period. Such an effort to come to terms with the notions of the legal development of veiling from the eighth to the nineteenth century will also allow us to understand better the fundamental change that has taken place in the functions attributed to veiling over the last 50 years.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3486.

*Islamic Civilizations 230. Islamic Modernism (1): 1700-1800
Catalog Number: 94782 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 16
This is the first of three courses on the development of Islamic Modernism from the 18th to the 21st century. All three seminars focus on a notion of "Modernism" and "Modernity" that is not simply imported into the Middle East. We will, therefore, have to discuss concepts of "Modernity" that see modernity produced in Europe or the US and then imported into the Middle East in order to show their shortcomings. We will also have to look closely at discussions within the field of Islamic Studies that deny or defend the existence of an Islamic modernism before the second half of the 19th century. The underlying assumption of the course organization is that Islamic Modernism cannot be understood when it is cut off from the intellectual and religious history of the centuries preceding it. The first of these three courses will therefore focus on the 18th-century religious reform movements: the Muwaḥḥidun in the Arabian Peninsula, the Sufi thinkers in Morocco, Sudan, Libya and Upper Egypt. These movements challenged dominant forms of scholastic thought, legal reasoning, and historical consciousness, as well as the barriers built by them that denied non-theologians and non-jurists the right to interpret revelation and Islamic normativity.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3963.

*Islamic Civilizations 232 (formerly *Religion 2835). Islamic Modernism (2): 1870-1970
Catalog Number: 15165 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 6
This is the second of the three seminars on Islamic Modernism. It treats the period between 1870-1970. It focuses on the development, within a colonialist context, of the learned Islamic modernism that develops in Egypt during the last third of the 19th century in the spheres of Qur’anic exegesis, the reinterpretation of Islamic normativity in a way that is compatible with the institutions of the modern nation state. This modernism also pleads for a selective reception of modern sciences from the West. This type of Islamic modernism is best represented by Muhammad ‘Abduh, the mufti of Egypt at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. ‘Abduh sees in the earliest period of Islam, the lifetime of the Prophet and the first four caliphs, the model by which all Islamic societies have to abide. The Muslim societies of the 19th and the 20th centuries that deviate from this model are characterized by him as living in "ignorance" or "paganism" (jāhiliyya), much as the pre-Islamic societies. This approach leads to a devaluation of the historical forms of political organization, law, and science that were developed after the early model period, a development that facilitates the adaptation of Islam to the requirements of a modern national state
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3964.

[*Islamic Civilizations 233. Islamic Modernism (3): 1970-2014]
Catalog Number: 65847 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Baber Johansen (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 2–4.
The third seminar on Islamic Modernism focuses on the end of Arab Liberalism on the level of political parties and the loss of its intellectual focus and influence on the debates of modern Islam. Since the Nasser period liberal politics and liberal public debates have no longer been compatible with the types of authoritarian states that characterize the post-colonial period and that now claim to represent modernity. The Muslim mass movements that had attacked the state of the liberals find themselves also persecuted by new forms of military authoritarianism. It is the reaction to the Iranian Revolution of 1979 that requires a new outlook on Islam and its relation to modernity by Iranian and Arab intellectuals. It is in opposition to the authoritarianism of the Islamic Republic that Iranian intellectuals develop new forms of Islamic hermeneutics that open the horizon for a new understanding of Islam and of politics, leave more space for oppositional forces, and assign more importance to the struggle for more individual and collective rights. This new outlook is not restricted to Iran and to Shi’i intellectuals. The Iranian developments have encouraged a new understanding of Islam and a growing opposition against authoritarian states, developments that were visible since the 1990s also in the Arab world. The growing role of non-Islamist political activists during that period shows the widespread disappointment with the Muslim Brothers and the concept of an Islamic State, but it does not seem to lead to a renaissance of liberalism. The question which political and cultural role Islamic modernism is going to play in the near future is hard to answer. The seminar does not pretend to answer it.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3965.

*Islamic Civilizations 241r. Approaches to Studying Indo-Muslim Culture and South Asian Islam
Catalog Number: 7515
Ali S. Asani
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
A seminar for graduate students focusing on current scholarship on Islamic civilization in South Asia.
Note: Open to undergraduates with a background in Islamic or South Asian studies.
Prerequisite: Introductory coursework on Islam, Islamic Civilizations 178 (formerly Religion 1820), or equivalent.

Cross-listed Courses

History 2884. Topics in Ottoman Social and Cultural History: Seminar
History 2886. Topics in Islamic History: Seminar
History of Science 209. Science, Religion and Culture: Debates, Methods and Controversies

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Islamic Civilizations 300. Reading and Research in Islamic Civilizations
Catalog Number: 1963
Ali S. Asani 7739, Khaled El-Rouayheb 5536, William Albert Graham 4156 (on leave spring term), William E. Granara 1054, Chad Kia 2852, and Malika Zeghal 6744

Jewish Studies

See also below under Aramaic, Hebrew, and Yiddish.

Jewish Studies

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-listed Courses

[Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding 29. Modern Jewish Literature]
[Culture and Belief 13. The Contested Bible: The Sacred-Secular Dance]
Culture and Belief 27. Among the Nations: Jewish History in Pagan, Christian and Muslim Context
Ethical Reasoning 15. “If There is No God, All is Permitted:” Theism and Moral Reasoning
[Religion 25. Judaism: Text and Tradition]

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Jewish Studies 103. Jewish Cultures in the Middle East]
Catalog Number: 46199
Susan M. Kahn
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 1–2:30.
An introduction to the cultural history of Jewish life in the Middle East. Provides an overview of the changing administrative contexts that historically governed the lives of minority populations in the Mamluk, Ottoman and Modern periods, and examines historical modes of Jewish community-building, strategies of survival, and cultural production in these settings. Finally, the course focuses on the diverse fates Middle Eastern Jewish communities in the 20th century. Readings will focus primarily on historical and anthropological accounts, though literary, cinematic and biographical sources will also be included.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Jewish Studies 149. Topics in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Exegesis at Qumran]
Catalog Number: 54969
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., 4–6.
This course explores the diverse functions of scripture within the literature of the Dead Sea Scrolls, focusing in particular on the forms and methods of interpretation attested, considered in light of other varieties of interpretation in early Judaism. Sessions will be devoted to reading, translation and discussion of primary sources in Hebrew, as well as to discussion of relevant secondary literature.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1309.
Prerequisite: Two years of Biblical Hebrew strongly recommended.

[Jewish Studies 168. Eighth-Century Prophets]
Catalog Number: 14062
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10.
A close examination of the books of Amos, Hosea, Micah, and Isaiah 1-39, in their historical and social contexts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1104.

[*Jewish Studies 170. Job and the Problem of Suffering]
Catalog Number: 80691
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10.
An examination of the book of Job and its poetic treatment of the human condition. The course will also consider other biblical and ancient Near Eastern texts that deal with the issue of evil in the world from a religious perspective, and later readings and retellings of Job by Frost, MacLeish, Wiesel, Fackenheim, and others.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1106.

Cross-listed Courses

[Literature 163. Jewish Languages and Literature]
[Societies of the World 35. Conditional Equality: The Case of the Jews of Europe in Modern Times]

Primarily for Graduates

*Jewish Studies 200r. Guided Readings in Jewish History
Catalog Number: 4478
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (fall term). M., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
Topic for 2010-11: Boundaries and Identities. Readings of Jewish texts, ancient to modern, that deal with the question of the Other and the Self: what is the boundary between Jews and non-Jews, and between Judaism and non-Judaism? Topic for 2014-15 to be determined.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3709. Required of all entering graduate students in Jewish Studies; open to others with the permission of the instructor.

[Jewish Studies 207. Rewriting Scripture in Jewish Antiquity: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 9572 Enrollment: Limited to 15.
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6.
A study of the exegetical literature of so-called rewritten Bible texts from the Second Temple period, considered in relation to the received Hebrew Bible and its later interpretive traditions. Examination of exegetical techniques, aims, and presuppositions, with attention to higher level compositional strategies, underlying conceptions of scripture/scriptural authority, and the dynamics of canon formation. Primary sources will include, among others: the book of Jubilees, the Temple Scroll, Reworked Pentateuch, the Genesis Apocryphon, as well as selected prophetic and hymnic exemplars.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1302.
Prerequisite: Ability to read (unpointed) Hebrew.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Jewish Studies 300. Reading and Research in Jewish Studies
Catalog Number: 1544
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180 and Jay M. Harris 2266

Modern Middle Eastern Studies

The Modern Middle East

Primarily for Undergraduates

*The Modern Middle East 91r. Supervised Reading and Research
Catalog Number: 88561
Ali S. Asani, William E. Granara, Susan M. Kahn, Malika Zeghal and members of the Department
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Tutorial supervision of research in subjects not treated in regular courses.

Cross-listed Courses

[Culture and Belief 41. Gender, Islam, and Nation in the Middle East and North Africa]
[*History 82m. The Modern Mediterranean: Connections and Conflicts between Europe and North Africa]
[Societies of the World 46. The Anthropology of Arabia]

For Undergraduates and Graduates

The Modern Middle East 100 (formerly Near Eastern Civilizations 100). Approaches to Middle Eastern Studies
Catalog Number: 12411
Malika Zeghal
Half course (fall term). M., W., at 10, plus a section meeting to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 5
An interdisciplinary introduction to Middle Eastern Studies focusing on the modern period. Disciplinary approaches will include exemplary texts in History, Anthropology, Religious Studies, Literature and Political Science. Required for all concentrators in The Modern Middle East. Open to all undergraduates.
Note: A required course primarily for undergraduates pursuing a secondary field in modern Middle Eastern Studies.

The Modern Middle East 111 (formerly Islamic Civilizations 105). Culture and Society in Contemporary Iran
Catalog Number: 51277
Chad Kia
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 1, plus weekly section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 8
Introduces a wide spectrum of students to some of the most significant aspects of Iranian culture from the Constitutional Revolution through the three decades since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, one of the paradigmatic shifts in twentieth-century global history. Using the modernist commitment of artists and intellectuals to social and political engagement as a unifying theme, the course will survey modern and contemporary Iranian culture through the analysis of various literary, artistic, cinematic, and intellectual forms. The impact of European culture; nationalism; the tensions between modernism, secularism, and religion; the emergence of women’s voices, a cinematic avant-garde, and mass culture; the strains of cosmopolitan and provincial coexistence; the anti-Western critique of "occidentosis"; and the controversial 2009 elections are among the issues that will be addressed.
Note: This course assumes no prior knowledge of Persian, Iranian history or Islam; when taken for a letter grade, it meets the General Education requirement for Culture and Belief.

[The Modern Middle East 120. The Arab Revolutions: popular uprisings and political transformations]
Catalog Number: 34461
Malika Zeghal
Half course (fall term). W., 1–3; .
Examines the causes of the 2010-2011 Arab uprisings, the subsequent political transformations in the Middle East and North Africa and the prospects for democratic transitions.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

The Modern Middle East 125. Culture and Society in Contemporary Israel - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 37025
Susan M. Kahn
Half course (fall term). W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
This course uses a variety of methodological approaches to explore the multidimensional nature of contemporary Israeli culture and society. Conventional and alternative narratives of the Israeli experience will be illuminated by analyzing a variety of texts, including literature, film and ethnography. Careful attention to historical and social contexts will amplify these explorations. The goal of the course is to give students a range of scholarly tools to explore central questions about Israeli culture and social life.
Note: Course taught in English; no Hebrew necessary.

The Modern Middle East 128. The Arab-Israeli Conflict - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 65595
Rachel Fish (Brandeis University)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 15
This course examines the historical narratives and dynamics of the Arab-Israeli conflict, both in terms of the conflicts between Israel and the neighboring Arab states and the particular struggle between Israel and the Palestinians. Through the exploration of primary sources and interrogation of parallel narratives, students will encounter the history and contemporary politics of the Arab-Israeli and Palestinian-Israeli conflicts.

The Modern Middle East 158a. Modern Arabic Literature Seminar: The Racialized Other in Arabian Peninsula Literature and Culture
Catalog Number: 55956
Moneera Al-Ghadeer
Half course (fall term). W., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 17
This course introduces modern literature and contemporary technology writing in the contemporary Arabian Peninsula. Themes include "race" and "otherness" and how these tropes are fashioned by political and social discourses. Readings include novels from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, and Qatar, exploring how narratives have been influenced and marked by questions of canon formation, globalization and social change.
Note: Arabic helpful but not required. Open to both undergraduates and graduates.

The Modern Middle East 158b. Modern Arabic Literature Seminar: Lebanese Civil War in Fiction
Catalog Number: 5145
William E. Granara
Half course (spring term). W., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 13
Examines the roots and issues of the Lebanese Civil War (1975-90) and its continuing impact on modern Arabic fiction. The syllabus pairs realistic and romanticized representations of family, sectarianism, and gender binaries against the destruction and fantasy of the urban landscape. Themes include nostalgia and memory, exile and return. Films and documentaries will also be viewed.
Note: Arabic helpful but not required. Open to both undergraduates and graduates.

[The Modern Middle East 160r (formerly Turkish 160r). History of Modern Turkey through Literature]
Catalog Number: 6964
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 12, and an additional hour to be arranged.
This course surveys the history of modern Turkey and culture through Turkish literature in translation. Main focus is on topics of cultural revolution, nationalism, identity, gender, and migration. Primary readings are translations of novels, short stories, drama and poetry.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Knowledge of Turkish not required. Not open to auditors.

[The Modern Middle East 175r (formerly Arabic 175r). Understanding Modern North Africa]
Catalog Number: 69851
William E. Granara
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 12.
An introduction to the history, politics, cultures, societies and economics of the modern Maghrib (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya). Emphasis on the formation of evolving post-colonial identities within Islamic, Arabo-Berber, African, and Mediterranean contexts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Qualifies as a gateway course for secondary field in Modern Middle Eastern Studies.

Cross-listed courses

[*Literature 131. The Arab-American Experience in Fiction, Film, and Popular Culture - (New Course)]

Primarily for Graduates

The Modern Middle East 200a (formerly Near Eastern Civilizations 200a). Approaches to Middle Eastern Studies
Catalog Number: 5918
Susan M. Kahn and members of the Faculty
Half course (fall term). M., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
Interdisciplinary seminar serves as an introduction to the major disciplines constituting Middle Eastern Studies, including history, political science, anthropology, literature and Islamic Studies. Faculty affiliated with Center for Middle Eastern Studies serve as guest lecturers.
Note: Required for students pursuing the AM in Middle Eastern Studies. Primarily for first-term students in the AM in Middle Eastern Studies program, although open to Graduate students in related fields.

Cross-listed Courses

[Comparative Literature 255. Dysfunctional Family as National Allegory in the Middle Eastern Novel]

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*The Modern Middle East 300. Direction of Master’s Thesis
Catalog Number: 37039
Ali S. Asani 7739, William E. Granara 1054, Baber Johansen (Divinity School) 5295, Susan M. Kahn 4833, and Malika Zeghal 6744

Near and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures

Akkadian

See also above under Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Akkadian A. Introductory Akkadian
Catalog Number: 4891
Gojko Barjamovic
Full course (indivisible). Fall: Tu., Th., 1:30–3; Spring: Tu., Th., 1–2:30. EXAM GROUP: Fall: 8; Spring: 1
An introduction to the Semitic language of Akkadian, primarily through the Old Babylonian dialect and cuneiform writing system as used during the time of Hammurabi (c. 1750 BCE). Students learn the fundamentals of grammar and the writing system, as well as the most common cuneiform signs in official and cursive script. Readings span a variety of genres, including private letters, judicial documents, literary and religious texts, divinatory compendia, legal code, and royal inscriptions. The course also briefly introduces students to examples of texts from other periods and dialects of the Akkadian language for cultural and comparative purposes.

Akkadian 120. Intermediate Babylonian
Catalog Number: 3724
Piotr Steinkeller
Full course (indivisible). Tu., Th., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 15
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

Akkadian 141r. Akkadian Myths and Epics
Catalog Number: 7618
Peter Machinist
Half course (spring term). Tu., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
The Gilgamesh Epic.
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

[Akkadian 144. Akkadian Divination Texts]
Catalog Number: 6734
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). W., 1–4.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Akkadian 149. Akkadian Legal and Economic Texts]
Catalog Number: 6703
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

[Akkadian 153. Old Akkadian]
Catalog Number: 8334
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). Th., 1–4.
Readings in representative historical, epistolary, literary, and economic texts with emphasis on the grammar.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

Akkadian 154a. Peripheral Akkadian
Catalog Number: 2416
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). Tu., 1–4. EXAM GROUP: 8
Prerequisite: Two full courses in Akkadian.

[Akkadian 156. Neo-Babylonian Inscriptions]
Catalog Number: 4024
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Focuses on juridical aspects of every-day life in 1st millennium BCE Babylon. Reports of legal cases, letters and contracts allow vivid insights into interactions between persons and enhances their sometimes moving biographies. Explores the fates of murderers, thieves, slaves and foundlings; characteristics of legal decision-making bodies and the royal interventions in private law will be discussed.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Akkadian grammar, basic vocabulary, knowledge of cuneiform script.

[Akkadian 157. Introduction to Old Assyrian Language and History]
Catalog Number: 90343
Gojko Barjamovic
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 11–12:30.
Readings of texts in the Assyrian dialect of the period c. 1920-1720 BCE. Examples include loans and quittances, caravan texts, commercial records, partnership contracts, business letters, family and state law, political treaties, royal inscriptions, incantations and literature. The course will integrate the textual record with an overview of Anatolian history and material culture during the period in question.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Primarily for Graduates

[Akkadian 200r. Readings in Akkadian: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 2970
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Akkadian 300. Akkadian Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 2233
Peter Machinist 2812 and Piotr Steinkeller 7337

Arabic

See also Islamic Civilizations.

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-listed Courses

[*Literature 131. The Arab-American Experience in Fiction, Film, and Popular Culture - (New Course)]

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Arabic A. Elementary Arabic
Catalog Number: 5773
Dalia Abo Haggar and staff
Full course (indivisible). M., through F., at 9, 10, 11, or 12. EXAM GROUP: 4
Introduces students to the phonology and script of classical/modern standard Arabic and covers the basic morphology and syntax of the written language. Emphasis on the development of the four skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing). Samples of modern (contemporary) and classical styles of writing introduced into basic syllabus, and audio-visual material from the contemporary Arabic media. Required textbooks: (1) Alif Baa (with multimedia), 2nd edition. (2) Al-Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-’Arabiyya:, Part I, 2nd edition.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4345.

Arabic Ba. Intermediate Arabic I
Catalog Number: 1106
Nour Barmada and staff
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 9, 10, 11, or 12. EXAM GROUP: 5
A thorough review and continuation of literary (classic and modern) Arabic grammar with emphasis on reading, writing, speaking and listening comprehension. Course materials draw from both classical and modern Arabic literature and culture. Required textbook: Al-Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-Arabiyya, Part II with DVDs, 2nd edition.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4351.
Prerequisite: Arabic A or equivalent.

Arabic Bb. Intermediate Arabic II
Catalog Number: 0973
Nour Barmada and staff
Half course (spring term). M., through F., at 9, 10, 11, or 12. EXAM GROUP: 10
A continuation of Arabic Ba. Textbook: Al-Kitaab, volume II, 2nd edition.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4361.
Prerequisite: Arabic A or equivalent.

Arabic 130a. Upper-Level Classical Arabic I
Catalog Number: 4591
Dalia Abo Haggar
Half course (fall term). M., Tu., Th., at 9. EXAM GROUP: 10
Concentration on readings from classical Islamic texts, with emphasis on Qur’an, hadîth, sîra, and tafsîr literature; directed readings and textual analysis; review of classical Arabic morphology and syntax.
Note: Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4353.
Prerequisite: Arabic Ba or equivalent, or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor.

Arabic 130b. Upper-Level Classical Arabic II
Catalog Number: 2964
Dalia Abo Haggar
Half course (spring term). M., Tu., Th., at 9. EXAM GROUP: 10
Continuation of Arabic 130a or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor. Readings from corpus of "Adab" (Belles-Lettres) literature, as well as various pieces of classical Arabic poetry.
Note: Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4354.
Prerequisite: Arabic 130a or equivalent, or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor.

Arabic 131a. Upper-Level Modern Arabic l
Catalog Number: 0739
Nevenka Korica-Sullivan
Half course (fall term). Section l: M. through Th., at 11; Section ll: M. through Th., at 12. EXAM GROUP: 18
Reading and discussion of selections from Arabic newspapers and journals on contemporary political, social, religious, and cultural issues in the Arab world. Emphasis on developing advanced reading and speaking skills, with some attention to writing and listening comprehension. Required textbook: al-Kitaab -Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-Arabiyya, Part III with DVDs.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Arabic Ba or equivalent.

Arabic 131b. Upper-Level Modern Arabic II
Catalog Number: 0697
Nevenka Korica-Sullivan
Half course (spring term). Section l: M. through Th., at 11; Section ll: M. through Th., at 12. EXAM GROUP: 14
A continuation of Arabic 131a or may be taken separately with permission of the instructor. Continued emphasis on advanced reading and speaking skills, and introduction to contemporary Arabic fiction, with emphasis on short stories and essays. Required textbook: al-Kitaab -Kitaab fii Ta’allum al-Arabiyya, Part III with DVDs.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Arabic 131a or equivalent.

Arabic 133. Upper-Level Spoken Modern Standard Arabic
Catalog Number: 4747 Enrollment: Limited to 15.
William E. Granara
Half course (fall term). M., W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 6
This course emphasizes the development of advanced speaking and listening skills by exposing students to the contemporary media and academia. Some reading and writing will be required, but classes will revolve around oral presentations and directed conversations.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Two years of MSA or equivalent proficiency.

Arabic 134. Colloquial Levantine Arabic
Catalog Number: 4154 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Nour Barmada
Half course (spring term). M., W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 17
Introduces students to Colloquial Levantine Arabic of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel/Palestine. The course emphasizes the development of speaking and listening skills through the reinforcement of grammar and vocabulary.
Note: Not open to auditors. Students who have completed Arabic 135 may not take this course for credit.
Prerequisite: Two years of Standard Arabic or the equivalent.

[Arabic 135. Colloquial Egyptian Arabic]
Catalog Number: 4454 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Nevenka Korica-Sullivan
Half course (spring term). M., W., 3–5.
Introduces students to Egyptian Arabic, the most widely recognized dialect in the Arab world. The course emphasizes the development of speaking and listening skills through the reinforcement of grammar and vocabulary.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Not open to auditors. Students who have completed Arabic 134 may not take this course for credit.
Prerequisite: Two years of Standard Arabic or the equivalent.

Arabic 160r. Readings in Arabic Historians, Geographers, and Biographers
Catalog Number: 5617
Roy Mottahedeh
Half course (fall term). W., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 17

Primarily for Graduates

Arabic 241ar. Advanced Modern Arabic Bridge: Language, Literature, and Culture I
Catalog Number: 3309
Sami Alkyam
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 11:30-1, and an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 15
This constitutes the final year of Modern Arabic track. Representative readings from contemporary literature and culture will form bases of discussions on major themes in contemporary Arab society.
Note: Conducted in Arabic. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Advanced proficiency in Arabic.

Arabic 241br. Advanced Modern Arabic Bridge: Language, Literature, and Culture II
Catalog Number: 6399
Sami Alkyam
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30-1, and an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 15
A continuation of Arabic 241ar.
Note: Conducted in Arabic. Not open to auditors.

*Arabic 242ar. Arabic Five
Catalog Number: 59675 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Moneera Al-Ghadeer
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 16
Invisible Societies in the Contemporary Arabic Novel. The course explores aspects of the contemporary Arabic novel and how authors fashion literary constructions of marginalized peoples, heteroglossia, and tensions between cosmopolitanism and localism.
Note: Course conducted solely in Arabic; all readings in Arabic.
Prerequisite: Four years of Modern Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

*Arabic 242br. Arabic Five
Catalog Number: 44568 Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Sami Alkyam
Half course (spring term). M., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 13
The Arabic short story: traditions and subversions.
Note: Course conducted solely in Arabic; all readings in Arabic.
Prerequisite: Four years of Modern Arabic or equivalent.

[Arabic 243ar. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge I: Historical Sources]
Catalog Number: 41216
William E. Granara
Half course (fall term). W., 9–11, plus one hour to be arranged.
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to various genres of historical, geographical and biographical texts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

[Arabic 243br. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge II: Rational Sciences]
Catalog Number: 77091
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1.
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to the genres of usul, kalam, mantiq and falsafa.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

Arabic 243cr. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge III: Prose and Poetry
Catalog Number: 11917
William E. Granara
Half course (fall term). W., 9–11. EXAM GROUP: 10
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to various genres of poetry and prose (adab).
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

Arabic 243dr. Advanced Readings in Classical Arabic Bridge IV: Religious Sciences
Catalog Number: 66382
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 11:30–1. EXAM GROUP: 15
Reinforcement of advanced classical Arabic grammar and stylistics, and introduction to various genres of Quran, Hadith, Sira and Tafsir.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent level of proficiency.

Arabic 246r. Andalus, Sicily, and the Maghrib in Literary and Cultural Texts: Seminar
Catalog Number: 6196
William E. Granara
Half course (spring term). Tu., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 11
Literary and historical texts of the Arabo-Islamic cultures of Spain (al-Andalus), Sicily, and North Africa. Examines the emergence of a "Maghribi" identity amidst cross-cultural relations with the Christian North and the Muslim East.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic, or permission from the instructor.

[Arabic 249r. Arabic Philosophical Texts: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 3572
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). M., 2–4.
Readings on selected topics in Islamic philosophy.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or equivalent.

Arabic 250r. Islamic Theological Texts: Seminar
Catalog Number: 7849
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (spring term). M., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 18
Readings on selected topics in Islamic theology.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3883. Students will be expected to read approximately 15-20 pages of classical Arabic per week.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic or permission of the instructor.

Arabic 251r. Classical Arabic Texts: Seminar - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 19577
Khaled El-Rouayheb
Half course (fall term). M., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: 7
Readings on selected topics in Islamic intellectual history.
Prerequisite: Three years of Arabic. Students are expected to be able to read 15-20 pages of classical Arabic per week.

Cross-listed Courses

[Comparative Literature 263. Journey, Exile, and Displacement in Modern Arabic Literature]

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Arabic 300. Reading and Research in Arabic Language and Civilization
Catalog Number: 7828
Khaled El-Rouayheb 5536, William Albert Graham 4156 (on leave spring term), William E. Granara 1054, Baber Johansen (Divinity School) 5295, and Roy Mottahedeh 1454 (on leave spring term)

*Arabic 320. Reading and Research in Modern Arabic Literature and Literary Criticism
Catalog Number: 9167
William E. Granara 1054

Aramaic

For Undergraduates and Graduates

See also Ancient Near East and Biblical Studies, Jewish Studies, and Early Iranian Civilizations.

Aramaic A. Introduction to Ancient Aramaic
Catalog Number: 5985
Peter Machinist
Half course (fall term). F., 11–1. EXAM GROUP: 18
Introduction to Aramaic focusing on Biblical Aramaic, but with selections also from other ancient Aramaic texts including Elephantine, Qumran and the Targumim.
Prerequisite: Two semesters of Biblical Hebrew.

Aramaic B. Targumic and Related Aramaic
Catalog Number: 89499
Peter Machinist
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Fall: F., 2–4. EXAM GROUP: Fall: 7
Readings in Egyptian, Palestinian and targumic Aramaic, with special focus on the grammar, literary form and function of the Targumim.
Prerequisite: Aramaic A or the equivalent.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Aramaic 300. Aramaic Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 5758
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, Khaled El-Rouayheb 5536, and Peter Machinist 2812

Armenian

See also Armenian Studies.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Armenian A. Elementary Classical Armenian]
Catalog Number: 5476
James R. Russell
Full course (indivisible). Tu., 2–4.
Introduction to classical Armenian grammar and reading of selected texts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Armenian B. Elementary Modern Eastern Armenian]
Catalog Number: 7168
James R. Russell
Full course (indivisible). Th., 4–6.
Introduction to the spoken and literary language of the Republic of Armenia.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Armenian 120. Armenian Magical Texts]
Catalog Number: 7221
James R. Russell
Half course (spring term). Tu., 2–4.
Armenian magical texts include codices, scrolls, and separately-printed saints’ lives used for good or ill, containing magic squares and symbols, the latter mostly deriving from Islamic magic. The course will consider literary sources of magic texts (e.g., the prayer Havatov khostovanim, the meditations of Narek), parallel traditions (esp. Christian Ethiopia), and the consideration of the paintings in Armenian magical manuscripts from the standpoint of the genre of Outsider Art.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 2200.

Armenian 130. Advanced Classical Armenian
Catalog Number: 4926
James R. Russell
Half course (fall term). W., 5:30–7:30 p.m. EXAM GROUP: 17
The text of St. Grigor Narekats’i Matean olbergut’ean, with other mystical texts from Armenian and Eastern Christian traditions.
Prerequisite: Armenian A.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Armenian 300. Armenian Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 0240
James R. Russell 3411 (on leave spring term)
Half course (fall term). .

Egyptian

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Egyptian Aa. The Language of the Pharaohs: Introduction to Egyptian hieroglyphs I
Catalog Number: 13886
Peter Der Manuelian
Half course (fall term). M., W., 1:30–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
This language course explores the fundamentals of Middle Egyptian, the classical stage of Egyptian hieroglyphs used throughout much of ancient Egyptian history. Lessons in the Egyptian writing system, grammar, and culture, with weekly vocabulary and exercises, will introduce the language and verbal system in a systematic fashion. By the end of the semester, students may begin to read selections from Egyptian classic stories and historical texts. Visits to the Semitic Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in order to read ancient hieroglyphic inscriptions on the original monuments, may also be included.
Note: Continues as Egyptian Ab. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4120.

Egyptian Ab. The Language of the Pharaohs: Introduction to Egyptian hieroglyphs II
Catalog Number: 80515
Peter Der Manuelian
Half course (spring term). M., W., 1:30–3. EXAM GROUP: 8
Continues Middle Egyptian I from the spring 2013 semester. Students will complete the introductory grammar book lessons, and move on to read a selection of basic stories, historical and biographical inscriptions, in the original hieroglyphs. Visits to the Egyptian galleries of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in order to read some of the ancient hieroglyphic inscriptions on the original monuments, may also be included.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4121.
Prerequisite: Egyptian Aa, Middle Egyptian I or consent of instructor.

[*Egyptian 150. Voices from the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Literature in Translation]
Catalog Number: 19657 Enrollment: Limited to 20.
Peter Der Manuelian
Half course (spring term). M., W., at 11.
Examines several literary genres, from the Pyramid Age through at least the New Kingdom (ca. 2500-1000 BCE), including royal decrees, autobiographies, the Pyramid Texts, legal documents, letters to the living (and dead), love stories and poetry, military texts, religious rituals, and tomb robber court trial transcripts. Special emphasis on classical tales of the Middle Kingdom ("The Shipwrecked Sailor," "The Story of Sinuhe," etc.). Lectures, class discussion; no prerequisites.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 2131.

Cross-listed Courses

Anthropology 1250. The Pyramids of Giza: Technology, Archaeology, History: Seminar
Societies of the World 38. Pyramid Schemes: The Archaeological History of Ancient Egypt

Primarily for Graduates

Cross-listed Courses

[*Anthropology 2022. Picturing the Past: An Introduction to Digital Epigraphy and Archaeological Illustration]

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Egyptian 300. Reading and Research in Egyptology
Catalog Number: 71257
Peter Der Manuelian 4279
Old Egyptian or Middle Egyptian Texts
Note: This course must be taken for letter grade.

Hebrew (Classical and Modern)

See also Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies and Jewish Studies.

Hebrew Language

Classical Hebrew

Classical Hebrew A. Elementary Classical Hebrew
Catalog Number: 8125
Peter Machinist
Full course (indivisible). M., W., F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 5
A thorough and rigorous introduction to Biblical Hebrew, with emphasis on grammar in the first term, and translation of biblical prose in the second. Daily preparation and active class participation mandatory.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4010.

Classical Hebrew 120a. Intermediate Classical Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 5545
Peter Machinist and members of the Department
Half course (fall term). M., W., F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 5
Readings in prose books; review of grammar.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4020.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew A or equivalent.

Classical Hebrew 120b. Intermediate Classical Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 8494
Peter Machinist and members of the Department
Half course (spring term). M., W., F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 5
Readings in prose and poetic books; review of grammar.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4021.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew 120a or equivalent.

Classical Hebrew 130ar. Rapid Reading Classical Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 7895
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Th., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 8
Advanced reading in selected biblical prose texts and intensive review of the grammar of Biblical Hebrew.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1625.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew A, 120a, and 120b, or equivalent.

Classical Hebrew 130br. Rapid Reading Classical Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 7896
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
Advanced reading in selected biblical poetic texts and intensive review of the grammar of Biblical Hebrew.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1626.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew 130a or equivalent.

[Classical Hebrew 138. Historical Grammar of Biblical Hebrew ]
Catalog Number: 4415
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
This course will trace the changes in Hebrew grammar in its ancient phases through the study of inscriptional, biblical, and extra-biblical texts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Classical Hebrew 130 or equivalent.

Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew B. Elementary Modern Hebrew
Catalog Number: 4810
Irit Aharony
Full course (indivisible). M. through F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 4
The course introduces students to the phonology and script as well as the fundamentals of morphology and syntax of Modern Hebrew. Emphasis is placed on developing reading, speaking, comprehension and writing skills, while introducing students to various aspects of contemporary Israeli society and culture.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4015. Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit.

Modern Hebrew 120a. Intermediate Modern Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 1711
Irit Aharony
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 4
The course reinforces and expands knowledge of linguistic and grammatical structures, with emphasis on further developing the four skills. Readings include selections from contemporary Israeli literature, print media, and internet publications. Readings and class discussions cover various facets of Israeli high and popular culture.
Note: Conducted primarily in Hebrew. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4040.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew B or passing of special departmental placement test.

Modern Hebrew 120b. Intermediate Modern Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 2563
Irit Aharony
Half course (spring term). M. through F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 14
Continuation of Hebrew 120a.
Note: Conducted primarily in Hebrew. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4041.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 120a.

Modern Hebrew 130a. Advanced Modern Hebrew I
Catalog Number: 4985
Irit Aharony and assistant
Half course (fall term). M., W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 1
This course constitutes the third year of the Modern Hebrew language sequence. The course emphasizes the development of advanced proficiency in all skills. Readings include texts of linguistic and cultural complexity that cover contemporary Israeli literature and culture.
Note: Conducted in Hebrew. Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4042.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 120a, 120b, or equivalent level of proficiency.

Modern Hebrew 130b. Advanced Modern Hebrew II
Catalog Number: 28788
Irit Aharony and assistant
Half course (spring term). M., W., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 8
This course is a continuation of Hebrew 130a. Texts, films, and other materials expose students to the richness and complexity of the contemporary sociolinguistics of Israeli society.
Note: Conducted in Hebrew. Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4043.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 130a, or equivalent level of proficiency.

Modern Hebrew 241r. Advanced Seminar in Modern Hebrew: Israeli Culture: Cinema & Literature
Catalog Number: 6949
Irit Aharony
Half course (fall term). Tu., Th., 1–3. EXAM GROUP: 8
This course constitutes the final level of Modern Hebrew language studies. The course offers representative readings and screenings from contemporary Israeli literature and cinema, and it forms bases of discussion on major cultural and linguistic themes through academic readings. We will focus on the theme of the family in Israeli culture and relationships between fathers and sons in "Far away Islands"; "Book of Intimate Grammar"; the new series "Shtissel"; and more.
Note: Discussions, papers, movies and texts presented only in Hebrew. Not open to auditors. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 4045.
Prerequisite: Modern Hebrew 130b or equivalent.

Hebrew Literature and History

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Hebrew 130. Scriptural Interpretation in Ancient Israel: Inner-Biblical Exegesis]
Catalog Number: 53182
D. Andrew Teeter (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6.
An examination of the forms, methods, and aims of scriptural interpretation within the Hebrew Bible itself. Sessions will combine consideration of recent scholarship on "inner-biblical exegesis" with close readings of biblical texts (narrative, legal, prophetic, apocalyptic, hymnic) in Hebrew.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Two years of Biblical Hebrew strongly recommended. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1308.

Hebrew 135. Introduction to Rabbinic Hebrew
Catalog Number: 83659
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Introduction to Tannaitic and Amoraic Hebrew with readings from talmudic and midrashic literature.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity school is 4036.
Prerequisite: Two semesters or the equivalent of Hebrew, preferably Biblical Hebrew.

Primarily for Graduates

*Hebrew 200r. Problems in the Literature, History, and Religion of Ancient Israel: Seminar
Catalog Number: 3265
Peter Machinist and others
Half course (fall term). Th., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 2
Topic for 2014-15 TBA; topic for 2013-14 was "Current scholarship on the formation of the literature of the Hebrew Bible."
Note: Primarily for doctoral students in Hebrew Bible. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1810.
Prerequisite: Good reading knowledge of Biblical Hebrew. Acquaintance with other relevant ancient and modern languages desirable.

[Hebrew 208r. Literature of Israel: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 1356
Peter Machinist
Half course (fall term). W., 3–5.
Topic for 2015-16 to be determined.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1825.
Prerequisite: Good reading knowledge of Biblical Hebrew. Acquaintance with other relevant ancient and modern languages desirable.

Hebrew 213b. Tannaitic Literature - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 48373
Jay M. Harris
Half course (spring term). W., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 13
An in-depth textual analysis of the Sifra, its exegetical techniques, and its relation to other rabbinic documents.
Prerequisite: Knowledge of rabbinic Hebrew.

[Hebrew 218. Joseph and Esther: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 0880
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Th., 2–4.
A close critical reading of Genesis 37-50 and the Book of Esther in Hebrew. Emphasis on literary design and religious messages and on the influence of the story of Joseph upon the Book of Esther.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1802.
Prerequisite: Three years of Hebrew or the equivalent, and a good acquaintance with the historical-critical method.

*Hebrew 226r. Seminar in Jewish Studies
Catalog Number: 42458
Shaye J.D. Cohen
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
An overview of the methods, questions, and controversies in the field of Jewish Studies over the last two centuries.
Prerequisite: Facility in reading rabbinic Hebrew. Permission of the instructor required for all students.

Hebrew 235. The Binding of Isaac (Aqedah): Seminar
Catalog Number: 0170
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (fall term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 16
An examination of Genesis 22 and its afterlife in ancient Judaism, early Christianity, and the Qur’an. Ample consideration of the interpretation and expansion of the story in modern theology and of critical responses to the story.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1808.
Prerequisite: Three years of Hebrew or the equivalent, and acquaintance with historical critical methods.

[Hebrew 236. Song at the Sea: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 6496
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 2–4.
A close reading of Exodus 13:17-15:21 in the context of the Hebrew Bible together with its ancient Near Eastern background. Ample Hebrew readings in this block of material and parallel biblical texts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1816.
Prerequisite: An introductory course in the critical study of the Hebrew Bible and a solid command of Hebrew grammar (any period).

[Hebrew 237. Jeremiah]
Catalog Number: 83454
Michael D. Coogan (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 8:30–10.
A close examination of the book of Jeremiah, with special attention to its historical context and textual and literary history. Knowledge of Hebrew not required.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1121.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Hebrew Bible/Old Testament or the equivalent.

[Hebrew 238. Readings in Midrash: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 36275
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Th., 2–4.
Close reading in Hebrew of selections from the Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael with the goal of understanding the nature of biblical interpretation in rabbinic Judaism and the shape of rabbinic theology.
Note: Expected to be given in 2016–17. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3678.
Prerequisite: Three years of college level Hebrew (any period) or the equivalent.

Hebrew 239. Exodus 2 in Three Contexts: Seminar - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 23835
Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School)
Half course (spring term). Tu., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 6
A close critical reading of the account of the early life of Moses in three contexts: (1) the Hebrew Bible and the ancient Near Eastern world in which it took shape; (2) rabbinic Judaism in Late Antiquity; and (3) medieval Jewish commentary. Texts to be read in Hebrew include Exodus 2 and a selection of rabbinic midrashim and medieval commentaries on it.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1826.
Prerequisite: Three years of Hebrew or the equivalent (not a course for those lacking a secure grasp of Hebrew grammar).

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Hebrew 300. Classical Hebrew Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 7831
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264, and Peter Machinist 2812

*Hebrew 350. Hebrew Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 4408
Shaye J.D. Cohen 4180, Jay M. Harris 2266, and Jon D. Levenson (Divinity School) 2264

Iranian

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations; Early Iranian Civilizations; Islamic Civilizations; and below under Persian.

Primarily for Undergraduates

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Iranian B. Introduction to Western Middle Iranian]
Catalog Number: 86585
James R. Russell
Full course. Tu., 6–8 p.m.
An introduction to the pre-Islamic languages and literatures of Parthian and Sasanian Iran and Zoroastrian sacred texts, and their alphabets.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. There are no prerequisites for this course.

Cross-listed Courses

Linguistics 221r. Workshop in Indo-European

Primarily for Graduates

Iranian 215. Intermediate Western Middle Iranian - (New Course)
Catalog Number: 45756
James R. Russell
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Further study of the pre-Islamic languages and literatures of Parthian and Sasanian Iran and Zoroastrian sacred texts, and their alphabets.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Western Middle Iranian.

Iranian 218a. Avestan Language and Literature I
Catalog Number: 34825
P. Oktor Skjaervo
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.

Iranian 218b. Avestan Language and Literature II
Catalog Number: 78055
P. Oktor Skjaervo
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Iranian 300. Reading and Research in Iranian Languages and Literatures
Catalog Number: 8155
James R. Russell 3411 (on leave spring term) and P. Oktor Skjaervo 2869 (on leave fall term)

Persian

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations; Early Iranian Civilizations; Islamic Civilizations; Iranian.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Persian A. Elementary Persian
Catalog Number: 8143
Nicholas Boylston
Full course (indivisible). M. through F. at 10, and a weekly section to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 5
Introduction to the grammar of modern literary and spoken Persian. Selected readings from contemporary and classical Persian literature.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit.

Persian Ba. Intermediate Persian I
Catalog Number: 2206
Nicholas Boylston
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 18
A thorough review and continuation of modern Persian grammar with an emphasis on reading, writing, speaking, and listening comprehension. Includes an introduction to classical prosody. Course materials draw from both classical and modern poetry and prose.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail.
Prerequisite: Persian A or the equivalent.

Persian Bb. Intermediate Persian II
Catalog Number: 3712
Nicholas Boylston
Half course (spring term). M. through F., at 11. EXAM GROUP: 14
Continuation of Persian Ba.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail.

Persian 130ar. Advanced Persian I
Catalog Number: 73988
Chad Kia
Half course (fall term). M., W., 2–3:30, plus an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 7
Review of advanced Persian grammar and syntax with introduction to both pre-modern and modern Persian prose and poetry. Themes cover a wide range of disciplines, from literature, history, social sciences and the arts.
Note: Formerly Persian 131r and Persian 132r.
Prerequisite: Persian B or equivalent, or permission of the instructor.

Persian 130br. Advanced Persian II
Catalog Number: 89002
Nicholas Boylston
Half course (spring term). Tu., Th., 1–2:30, plus an additional hour to be arranged. EXAM GROUP: 1
Continuation of Persian 130ar.
Note: Formerly Persian 131r and Persian 132r.
Prerequisite: Persian B or equivalent, or permission of the instructor.

Persian 150r. Readings in Persian Historians, Geographers and Biographers
Catalog Number: 6538
Roy Mottahedeh
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.

Persian 151r. Sufi Traditions in Classical Persian Literature
Catalog Number: 58728
Chad Kia
Half course (spring term). M., W., 2–3:30. EXAM GROUP: 18
Readings in Persian Sufi literature from early post-Islamic centuries to Attar, Rumi, Hafez, and others, with emphasis on fundamental themes of the Sufi tradition. Practice in grammar and composition at an advanced level will develop the student’s ability to read high literary texts, both in prose and poetry.
Note: The course lectures and readings will be in English but there will be a separate section for students with adequate knowledge of Persian to read the text of the Masnavi in Persian. Offered jointly by the Divinity School as 4070.
Prerequisite: At least two years of Persian or equivalent.

Persian 152. Literary and Visual Narrative in the Persian Epic Tradition
Catalog Number: 67634
Chad Kia
Half course (fall term). Tu., 1:30–3:30. EXAM GROUP: 8
Both poetry and the art of painting in medieval Persianate cultures developed to a high level of artistic excellence in the context of court patronage. This course examines that development through the epic tradition in medieval Persian poetry and prose including long narratives in heroic, romance, folk and ethical genres. The course considers the affinities and differences between these and epic tales from other traditions as well as their interactions with Persian painting and manuscript illustration. Beginning with the Parthian romance of Vis and Ramin and the heroic epic of Shahnameh, the survey will continue with epic romances of Nizami, prose narratives about folk heroes such as Abu Muslimnameh, and didactic epics by Sa‘di and others.
Note: The course lectures and readings will be in English but there will be a separate section for students with adequate knowledge of Persian to read the relevant texts in Persian.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Persian 300. Persian Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 6962
Roy Mottahedeh 1454 (on leave spring term) and William E. Granara 1054

Semitic Philology

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Semitic Philology 130. Diglossia in Semitic Languages
Catalog Number: 82868
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Th., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 16
Diglossia describes a situation in which two (or more) languages coexist, or two varieties of one language, within one speech community. In this course we will examine various aspects of such a linguistic situation from different theoretical points of view, considering this fascinating phenomenon in the history of the Semitic languages.

[Semitic Philology 151. Introduction to Northwest Semitic Epigraphy]
Catalog Number: 2858
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Readings in Hebrew, Phoenician and other Northwest Semitic inscriptions with an introduction to methods and techniques of Northwest Semitic palaeography, and attention to problems of historical grammar.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1152.
Prerequisite: Good working knowledge of Classical (Biblical) Hebrew.

Semitic Philology 152. Introduction to Ugaritic
Catalog Number: 2777
Peter Machinist and staff
Half course (fall term). W., 3–5. EXAM GROUP: 6
Introduction to Ugaritic grammar, with readings in mythological, epistolary, and administrative texts.
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1153.
Prerequisite: Good working knowledge of Classical (Biblical) Hebrew.

Primarily for Graduates

Semitic Philology 220r. Northwest Semitic Epigraphy: Seminar
Catalog Number: 2948
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Topic for 2014-15 to be determined; topic for 2012-13 was "Advanced discussion of Ugaritic grammar and texts."
Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 1160.
Prerequisite: Semitic Philology 151.

Cross-listed Courses

Linguistics 221r. Workshop in Indo-European

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Semitic Philology 300. Semitic and Afroasiatic Languages and Literatures
Catalog Number: 2762
Members of the Department

Sumerian

See also above under Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

[Sumerian A. Elementary Sumerian]
Catalog Number: 5260
Piotr Steinkeller
Full course (indivisible). Fall: Tu., Th., at 1; Spring: Th., 1:30–4:30.
Introduction to the Sumerian language with emphasis on grammatical structure.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Sumerian 120. Intermediate Sumerian
Catalog Number: 7399
Piotr Steinkeller and assistant
Full course (indivisible). Fall: Th., 1–4. EXAM GROUP: Fall: 8
Prerequisite: Knowledge of basic Sumerian grammar, vocabulary, and cuneiform script.

[Sumerian 140. Sumerian Historical Texts]
Catalog Number: 35916
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). W., 1–4.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Sumerian 141. Sumerian Myths and Epics]
Catalog Number: 9858
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Sumerian 145. Sumerian Incantations and Rituals]
Catalog Number: 5259
Piotr Steinkeller
Half course (fall term). W., 1–4.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Sumerian 146. Sumerian Religious Literature]
Catalog Number: 2605
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

[Sumerian 149. Sumerian Legal and Economic Texts]
Catalog Number: 8820
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Primarily for Graduates

[Sumerian 200r. Readings in Sumerian: Seminar]
Catalog Number: 7496
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

[*Sumerian 300. Sumerian Language and Literature]
Catalog Number: 7912
Piotr Steinkeller 7337
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.

Cross-listed Courses

Linguistics 225a. Introduction to Hittite

Turkish (Ottoman and Modern)

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations; Islamic Civilizations.

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Turkish A. Elementary Modern Turkish
Catalog Number: 2527
William E. Granara and staff
Full course (indivisible). M. through F., at 10. EXAM GROUP: 5
Emphasis on all aspects of Turkish grammar toward developing a solid foundation for speaking, listening, reading, writing, and vocabulary skills.
Note: Not open to auditors. Cannot be taken pass/fail. Cannot divide for credit.

[Turkish 120a. Intermediate Modern Turkish I]
Catalog Number: 4009
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (fall term). M. through F., at 10.
Emphasis on complex sentence structure and building communicative competence in describing events and expressing ideas through exercises in reading, writing, and speaking.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish A or equivalent.

[Turkish 120b. Intermediate Modern Turkish II]
Catalog Number: 1394
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). M. through F., at 10.
Studies in argumentative and literary prose.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 120a or equivalent.

[Turkish 121. Elementary Uzbek]
Catalog Number: 14198
William E. Granara and assistant
Full course (indivisible). Fall: M. through Th., at 9.
Introduction to conversational and literary Uzbek. Overview of the grammar, intensive practice of the spoken language, and reading of contemporary texts.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Some knowledge of Modern Turkish or other Turkic language helpful but not required. For information on Uzbek instruction at other levels, please contact the Student Programs Officer at the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, reeca@fas.harvard.edu.

[Turkish 125a. Intermediate Uzbek I]
Catalog Number: 2947
William E. Granara and assistant
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Continuation of Elementary Uzbek with an emphasis on further development of both conversational and literary Uzbek.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. For information on Uzbek instruction at other levels, please contact the Student Programs Officer at the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, reeca@fas.harvard.edu.
Prerequisite: Turkish 121b or equivalent.

[Turkish 125b. Intermediate Uzbek II]
Catalog Number: 0125
William E. Granara and assistant
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
A continuation of Turkish 125a.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Turkish 125a or equivalent.

[Turkish 130a. Advanced Turkish I]
Catalog Number: 42651
Himmet Taskomur and assistant
Half course (fall term). M., 2–4, W., 2–5.
Gaining and improving advanced language skills in Modern Turkish through reading, writing, listening, and speaking with special emphasis on the proper usage of vocabulary and idiomatic expressions.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Not open to auditors.

[Turkish 130b. Advanced Turkish II]
Catalog Number: 4354
Himmet Taskomur and assistant
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Studies in literary and idiomatic prose through readings, discussions, and writing of short analytical papers.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 130a or equivalent.

Turkish 140a. Introduction to Ottoman Turkish I
Catalog Number: 8163
William E. Granara and staff
Half course (fall term). Hours to be arranged.
Introduction to basic orthographic conventions and grammatical characteristics of Ottoman Turkish through readings in printed selections from the 19th and 20th centuries, and exercises on techniques.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish A or equivalent; one year of Arabic or Persian desirable.

Turkish 140b. Introduction to Ottoman Turkish II
Catalog Number: 8298
William E. Granara and staff
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Continuation of Turkish 140a. Exercises on specialized orthographic conventions and grammatical characteristics of Ottoman Turkish through readings in printed selections from the 19th and 20th centuries.
Note: Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 140a or equivalent.

[Turkish 145. Readings on Early Modern Ottoman Intellectual History]
Catalog Number: 0095
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). Hours to be arranged.
This course introduces students various writings of Ottoman intellectuals by focusing on selected themes, including language registers, styles of argumentations.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Advanced reading proficiency in Ottoman Turkish.

[Turkish 150a. Advanced Ottoman Turkish: Readings on Ottoman Cultural History between 15th to 18th centuries.]
Catalog Number: 91716
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (fall term). M., Th., 5–7:30 p.m.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 140 or equivalent; one year of Arabic or Persian desirable.

[*Turkish 150b. Advanced Ottoman Turkish]
Catalog Number: 40194
Himmet Taskomur
Half course (spring term). M., 2–4, F., 2:30–4:30.
Bureaucracy and Empire: Introduction to Ottoman Archival Research. The course introduces research tools for Ottoman archives and surveys central government documents focusing on paleography, diplomatics and linguistic features of documents.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Not open to auditors.
Prerequisite: Turkish 140 or equivalent; one year of Arabic or Persian desirable.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Turkish 300. Turkish Languages and Literatures
Catalog Number: 7702
William E. Granara 1054, Cemal Kafadar 2459, and Himmet Taskomur 6296

Yiddish

See also above under Near Eastern Civilizations: Jewish Studies.

Primarily for Undergraduates

Cross-Listed Courses

For Undergraduates and Graduates

Yiddish A. Elementary Yiddish
Catalog Number: 4623
Eitan Lev Kensky and staff
Full course (indivisible). Fall: M., W., F., at 10; Spring: M., W., (F.), at 10. EXAM GROUP: 5
Introduction to the Yiddish language, as written and spoken in Eastern Europe, the Americas, Israel, and around the world, and to the culture of Ashkenazic Jews. Development of reading, writing, speaking, and oral comprehension skills. Course materials include rich selections from Jewish humor, Yiddish songs, and films of Jewish life past and present.
Note: For students with little or no knowledge of Yiddish. Additional sections at different times may be added as needed.

Yiddish Ba. Intermediate Yiddish I
Catalog Number: 6023
Eitan Lev Kensky and staff
Half course (fall term). M., W., (F.), at 12. EXAM GROUP: 11
Further development of reading, writing, speaking, and oral comprehension skills. Introduction to features of the main Yiddish dialects: Polish/Galician, Ukrainian/Volhynian, and Lithuanian/Belorussian. Course materials include selections from modern Yiddish fiction, poetry, songs, the press, and private letters, as well as pre-WWII and contemporary Yiddish films. Occasional visits from native Yiddish speakers.
Note: Additional sections at different times may be added as needed.
Prerequisite: Yiddish A or equivalent.

Yiddish Bb. Intermediate Yiddish II
Catalog Number: 1239
Eitan Lev Kensky and staff
Half course (spring term). M., W., (F.), at 11. EXAM GROUP: 14
Continuation of Yiddish Ba.
Prerequisite: Yiddish Ba or permission of the instructor.

[Yiddish Ca. Advanced Yiddish I]
Catalog Number: 8331 Enrollment: To enroll, please contact the instructor.
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). M., W., 1–2:30.
Emphasis on building advanced vocabulary from the three main lexical components, Germanic, Hebrew-Aramaic, and Slavic, and further development of writing, reading, and speech. Continued exploration of the main Yiddish dialects. Introduction to various styles of Yiddish literature, journalism, theater, film, and song, particularly from the nineteenth century to the present, including contemporary sources from both secular Yiddish culture and the Yiddish-speaking "ultra-orthodox" communities of New York, Jerusalem, and elsewhere.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. Additional sections at different times may be added as needed.
Prerequisite: Yiddish Bb or permission of the instructor.

[Yiddish Cb. Advanced Yiddish II]
Catalog Number: 8968 Enrollment: To enroll, please contact the instructor.
Instructor to be determined
Half course (spring term). M., W., 1–2:30.
Continuation of Yiddish Ca.
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16.
Prerequisite: Yiddish Ca or permission of the instructor.

[Yiddish 130. Three Centers of Yiddish Culture]
Catalog Number: 95148
Instructor to be determined
Half course (fall term). Tu., 2–4, plus a section to be arranged.
In 1926, the Yiddish novelist Dovid Bergelson announced the "three centers" of Yiddish literature and culture: New York, Warsaw and Moscow. Using Bergelson’s essay as a window on Yiddish modernism, this class looks at the relationship between language, city, and state. We will ask, what distinguished Yiddish culture in one place from another? Did writers see themselves at home or in exile? How did politics affect the Yiddish writer? And what should we make of the other Yiddish centers, Vilna, Kiev, even Berlin?
Note: Expected to be given in 2015–16. This class is intended for students with a reading knowledge of Yiddish, though all texts will be available in English translation. Class discussion will be in English. There will be an extra section for Yiddish readers.

Primarily for Graduates

Yiddish 200r. Literature and Belief: The Case of Modern Yiddish Literature
Catalog Number: 4263
Dara Horn
Half course (fall term). M., 4–6. EXAM GROUP: 17
Is literature animated by a "moral of the story," or by "art for art’s sake"? This question was more than theoretical for modern Yiddish writers, who wrote at a crossroads between religious and secular life, under extraordinary circumstances. The course will explore how genre and belief interact in Yiddish stories, novels, poetry and drama over the past two centuries, as we closely examine the broader question of the purpose of art.
Note: Reading knowledge of Yiddish appreciated but not required; all texts available in translation. Open to graduate students in any department, and undergraduates with permission of the instructor. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3719.

Graduate Courses of Reading and Research

*Yiddish 300. Yiddish Language and Literature
Catalog Number: 7833
Instructor to be determined